how an ageing population will change the world


case study: japan's ageing population



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  1. Describe the changes to Switzerland's population structure.
  2. Explain the factors responsible for this change.
  3. Describe the changes in old-age dependency ratio between 1990and 2010. Refer to data in your answer.




  1. In groups, create a mini-lesson teaching about a case study of youthful and ageing populations
  2. The 'lesson' should be 15 minutes long and include:
    • Population pyramid of the country
    • Short explanatory video
    • Map
    • News article
    • A selection of learning activities
    • Quiz

EXAM practice

Explain the economic impacts of an ageing population in one or more named countries [5 marks] 


Mark scheme

A valid country should be chosen as an example [1 mark].

Award 1+1 marks for each valid economic impact, provided that it is developed by means of explanation or detail.

Possible impacts could be:

  • increased dependency ratio
  • potential shortage of labour
  • reduced revenue from taxation
  • reduced savings/investment
  • increased demand on state pensions
  • increased demand on services/welfare for the elderly
  • increased insurance premiums
  • lower economic growth
  • introduction of mandatory pension schemes
  • issues of younger family members having to care for the elderly.