How much fresh water is stored as groundwater? What is an aquifer? Why are aquifers important?

How is ground water used by humans? Name 3 ways that aquifers recharge their water.


groundwater extraction and recharge

  1. Identify and list natural and artificial methods of groundwater recharge
  2. Explain 3 ways that losses of groundwater happen

drainage basin processes and groundwater

  1. Watch and take notes
  2. Draw a labelled diagram to describe the different paths that water takes after it falls as precipitation
  3. Define the terms: permeable, porosity, aquifer, water table
  4. Use the words above to write a paragraph explaining how groundwater stores work


The functioning and management of artesian basins and aquifers

The functioning and management of artesian basins and aquifers

  1. Draw a labelled diagram explaining how artesian basins work

case study: the great artesian basin, australia

  1. Watch the video and make notes on how aquifers work
  2. Using this information, create a diagram showing the functioning of aquifers and artesian basins


  1. Scan the text and highlight the word 'recharge' with one colour, all other key words with a different colour
  2. Re-read the document and explain the difference between natural and artificial recharge by adding information to two columns
  3. Summarise the environmental impacts of groundwater extraction

exam practice

(i) Briefly outline how the natural recharge of an aquifer takes place. (2 marks)

(ii) State two methods that can be used to artificially recharge an aquifer. (2 marks)


Mark Scheme

(i) Natural recharge happens through normal percolation after rainfall/snowfall [1] and/or a gradual seepage from rivers or other water bodies [1].

Credit any valid extension of either point or any comment that relates to the geology/porosity of rock [1] of the area that allows downward movement of water.

(ii) Through creation of recharge basin lakes [1] or water pumped down the bore hole [1]. Credit any other logical reason why more water could be introduced to a region where an aquifer is present, eg drainage diversion [1].