changes in location of different tourist activities

case study: TICINO, GRAUBüNDEN and Basel, switzerland

Which regions lost tourists and why? What strategies were employed to bring back tourists?


development of different tourist activities




adventure travel

Adventure travel is a type of tourism involving exploration or travel with perceived (and possibly actual) risk, and potentially requiring specialised skills and physical exertion. Adventure tourism has grown in recent decades, as tourists seek different kinds of vacations, but measurement of market size and growth is hampered by the lack of a clear operational definition. According to the U.S. based Adventure Travel Trade Association, adventure travel may be any tourist activity, including two of the following three components: a physical activity, a cultural exchange or interaction and engagement with nature.

Adventure tourists may be motivated to achieve mental states characterised as rush or flow, resulting from stepping outside of their comfort zone. This may be from experiencing culture shock or through the performance of acts, that require significant effort and involve some degree of risk (real or perceived) and/or physical danger. This may include activities such as mountaineering, trekking, bungee jumping, mountain biking,canoeing, rafting, zip-lining, paragliding, and rock climbing. Some obscure forms of adventure travel include disaster and ghetto tourism. Other rising forms of adventure travel include social and jungle tourism.

Access to inexpensive consumer technology, with respect to Global Positioning Systems, flashpacking, social networking and photography, have increased the worldwide interest in adventure travel. The interest in independent adventure travel has also increased as more specialist travel websites emerge offering previously niche locations and sports.



the power of adventure tourism

adventure tourism is what tourism should be


CASE StUDY: adventure tourism in switzerland

Switzerland is the #1 ranked destination for adventure tourism in the developed world.

Read pp 21-22 of the pdf below and explain why.


explain the growth of more remote tourist destinations


tourism in polar regions

In Antarctica, there has been a tremendous growth in tourism activities over the last decades. The number of ship-borne tourists increased by 344% in 13 years and land-based tourists by 917 % in 9 years. By the early 1990’s, the number of tourists in Antarctica eclipsed the number of scientists conducting research there.

Since then, the disparity between numbers of tourists and scientists has steadily increased. Today improving transport technologies, growing popularity, increasing wealth and leisure time, a moderating climate, and intensive tourism promotion are all contributing to the growth of tourism in the Polar Regions.




  1. Read pp 2-5
  2. Read pp 12-15
  3. Describe the growth of polar tourism using data.
  4. Explain the growth in popularity of these destinations.
  5. Examine the environmental impact of polar tourism.

exam practice

Examine the changes in the international tourism industry that have led to the development of different types of tourist activity and locations. (10 marks)


Responses are expected to acknowledge the overall global increase in tourist numbers and the associated increase in revenues. This increase in the overall industry has increased the saturation of existing locations, the decline of domestic tourist locations in the UK and Switzerland, and led to new types of tourism evolving (cultural weekend tourism in Basel, Adventure tourism in Switzerland) and more remote locations being developed (high mountain areas, north and south poles). Reference to models of tourism may be relevant here.

Ecotourism, adventure tourism, high value luxury tourism and back-packing are different types of tourism that may occur in remote locations. In addition, an increase in transport infrastructure and reduced flight costs has made new locations more financially viable. Global warming may be opening up some remote locations to tourism, such as Greenland and Svalbard. A recognition amongst governments of the development potential provided by tourism has increased investment thus increasing access. Increasing standards of living in emerging economies is leading to an increase in the volume of global tourists in recognised markets. This is compounded by mass media and marketing.

While examples are not a specific requirement of the question, those answers that provide supporting examples are likely to access the higher markbands. At band D, at least two changes are described and linked to different types of tourist activity. To access bands E and F a variety of changes are examined (e.g. may examine the most important change, or categorise the changes) and linked to different types of activity and new destinations.