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Production and Consumption


Examine the global patterns and trends in the production and consumption of oil

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Production and Consumption


Examine the global patterns and trends in the production and consumption of oil

 
 
  1. Describe the global pattern of oil production and consumption [3 + 3 marks]

(Refer to named regions of the world, country names and support your answer with data.)

 
 

global oil consumption

 
 

TRENDS IN PRODUCTION: Peak OIl theory

 

CHANGES IN PRODUCTION: shift to remote or previously uneconomic sources

US SHALE / FRACKING

US oil production from 1980-2014.

US oil production from 1980-2014.

The US has increased its domestic production of oil thanks to huge investment in and expansion of fracking of US shale deposits.

 
 
 
 

TAR SANDS, ALBERTA, CANADA

Cenovus’ Christina Lake oil sands operation (source)

KEY POINTS

  • Large deposits of heavy crude oil in northeastern Canada
  • Found under 141,000 km2 of boreal forest
  • 178 billion barrels available for extraction
  • Extraction and processing extremely damaging to a sensitive (extreme) environment

Toxic Alberta - Vice Documentary

 
 

exam practice

Analyse how the global pattern of oil production has changed in recent decades [5 marks].

 

MARK SCHEME

Answers may focus on spatial and/or temporal changes.

Answers should refer to sub-global regions in terms of how production is changing over time, and/or how it is changing as a proportion of the world total. Many responses will focus on the "peak oil" scenario.

There should be some comment on how demand and price is driving the exploitation of oil in remote and/or previously uneconomic sources, for example, further off shore or tar sands in Alberta, Canada. Award up to 2 marks for valid descriptions of changes, 2 marks for related analysis with the final 1 mark being reserved for either.

Examiners report

Weak candidates had great difficulty trying to analyse how the global pattern of oil production has changed in recent decades. In many cases production was confused with consumption and the changes in global pattern of oil production were not addressed. The best responses demonstrated very accurate and correct ideas with sound knowledge and understanding, for example, details about OPEC and production statistics; relevant descriptions of the global pattern of oil production with strong sound analysis of change (such as geopolitical issues, peak oil scenarios, exploitation/new reserves such as tar sands, conservation/secondary extraction). Unfortunately, these responses were quite rare.

 

EXTRA RESOURCES

task

  1. Download or print the document above
  2. Highlight spatial patterns in one colour
  3. Highlight temporal trends in a different colour
  4. Write a paragraph summarising this information, focus on different points of view
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Geopolitical and Environmental Impacts


Examine the geopolitical and environmental impacts of these changes in patterns and trends

Geopolitical and Environmental Impacts


Examine the geopolitical and environmental impacts of these changes in patterns and trends

geopolitical impacts

 

russia and oil

 

iran and oil

 
 
 

environmental impacts

OIL SPILLS AT SEA

 

task

  1. Plot information about the top ten worst oil spills onto this world map
 
 

alberta tar sands, canada

 
 

RAIL TRANSPORT

Fracking in the USA has increased oil production dramatically. In order to distribute this oil, transport has moved to land, in particular, by rail. Transport of oil by rail in the USA has increased 4000% in the last five years. This has led to a number of accidents with environmental consequences.

Watch the video on the right and note the mian points about how changing trends in oil production are having environmental consequences in the USA.

 

 

PIPE TRANSPORT

The Keystone Pipeline System is an oil pipeline system in Canada and the United States, commissioned since 2010.

It runs from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in Alberta to refineries in Illinois and Texas, and also to oil tank farms and oil pipeline distribution centre in Cushing, Oklahoma.

The US is currently trying to pass an extension to the pipeline to increase transport of oil, called Keystone XL. 

Different environmental groups, citizens, and politicians have raised concerns about the potential negative impacts of the Keystone XL project. The main issues are the risk of oil spills along the pipeline, which would traverse highly sensitive terrain, and 17% higher greenhouse gas emissions from the extraction of oil sands compared to extraction of conventional oil. [Source]

 

 

CLIMATE CHANGE

CO2 emissions vs CO2 in the atmosphere

CO2 emissions vs CO2 in the atmosphere

Atmospheric_carbon_dioxide_concentrations_and_global_annual_average_temperatures_over_the_years_1880_to_2009.png
 

EXAM PRACTICE

Explain two geopolitical impacts of the rise in global oil consumption since 1990. [4 marks]

 

Mark Scheme

The increase in global consumption has led to geopolitical pressures in some parts of the world as oil-hungry countries seek additional supplies of oil to meet their anticipated future demand.

It has increased tensions in parts of the Middle East since that area has the world’s largest oil reserves to which oil-importing countries such as the US want to preserve their access.

Equally, it has led to growing international tension over likely sources of oil, such as those in the Arctic, Sudan and South China Sea, that are currently not exploited.

On the other hand, the rise in consumption has led to higher prices for oil, leading to more investment in non-oil sources of energy.

Reference may be made to conflicts that have their origin in the securing of access to oil supplies. Comments may refer to variations in the rate of increase with NICs having a faster increase in demand which causes tensions. Some impacts may arise through the transport of oil and pollution incidents that are a consequence – be careful to credit only where they lead to geopolitical impacts.

Sheringham_Shoal_Wind_Farm_2012.jpg

Alternative energy sources


Examine the changing importance of other energy sources

Alternative energy sources


Examine the changing importance of other energy sources

 
 

US shale gas

FRACKING EXPLAINED

 
 

RUSSIAN natural gas

GEOPOLITICS OF EUROPE'S GAS SUPPLY

 
 

TASK

  1. Create a presentation on one form of renewable energy from the list below using the resources from pp 263-269 Patterns and Change book

  • Hydro-electric power
  • Wind power
  • Biofuels
  • Geothermal electricity
  • Solar power
  • Tidal power
  • Fuelwood (in developing countries)

2. Include the following:

  • Brief description of energy source and how it works, with pictures/diagrams
  • Overview of the current global situation
  • Advantages and disadvantages
  • Summary of a news article with screenshot
  • Short video about the changing importance of your energy source
  • A named example from somewhere in the world
 
 

Exam Practice

1) Identify and rank the top three renewable sources of energy shown on the graph from highest to lowest. [2 marks]

 

2) Explain two disadvantages of one named source of renewable energy. [4 marks]

 

3) Suggest two reasons why sources of renewable energy have become more important in many countries in recent years. [4 marks]

 

4) Suggest two reasons why some areas of the world are unlikely to depend entirely on renewable energy sources. [2 x 2 marks]