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Population Change


Population change and demographic transition over time, including natural increase, fertility rate, life expectancy, population structure and dependency ratios

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Population Change


Population change and demographic transition over time, including natural increase, fertility rate, life expectancy, population structure and dependency ratios

 

Population growth rate indicates the percentage change of resident population compared to previous year.

The percentage change of a resident population in a country is calculated using:

  1. the number of births and deaths (natural change)
  2. in migration and out migration
 

Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear.

Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear.

Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.

Calculate the natural increase for each of the world regions using data from the graphs above.

 

Life expectancy is the average number of years a newborn is expected to live with current mortality patterns remaining the same.

Fertility rate is the average number of births per woman.

 

With reference to named regions and data, describe the relationship between life expectancy and fertility rate for all subregions between 1976 and 2015. 

Age dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents (people younger than 15 or older than 64) to the working-age population (those ages 15-64). Data are shown as the proportion of dependents per 100 working-age population.

 

SWITZERLAND AND NIGER CASE STUDIES

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Megacities


The consequences of megacity growth for individuals and societies

Megacities


The consequences of megacity growth for individuals and societies

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2007 was the first year in human history when more than 50% of the world's population lived in urban areas. Urbanisation is happening at a faster rate than at any time in human history.

Asia accounts for over half of today's megacities. By 2030 nearly 9% of the world's population will live in 41 megacities, with India and China having 7 megacities each. It is predicted that Africa will have some of the highest rates of urbanisation in the future. While European and North American megacities show limited growth, megacities in developing economies continue to grow rapidly.

 
 

Access the resources below and complete the student worksheet.

 

Megacity population (2016)

 
 

CONSEQUENCES OF MEGACITY GROWTH

 

SOCIAL

Poor quality housing

Wealth gap

Poverty

Crime and public safety

ECONOMIC

Unemployment

Underemployment

Economic development

Rising costs of living

ENVIRONMENTAL

Air pollution

General pollution

Water pollution

INFRASTRUCTURE

Transport provision

Congestion

Water supply

Electricity

 
 

LAGOS: MEGACITY CASE STUDY

  • Africa's population is expected to double by 2050, reaching 2.5 billion people.
  • 2 thirds of Africa's population is under 25
  • Lagos is Africa's fastest growing city and potentially the fastest growing city in the world
  • 21 million population (est. 2017) set to double by 2050
 
 
 
 
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Forced Migration


Explain the causes and consequences of forced migration and internal displacement

Forced Migration


Explain the causes and consequences of forced migration and internal displacement

Processes of population change and their effect on people and places
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By the end of 2016, the total number of refugees and asylum seekers in the world was
estimated at 25.9 million - 10.1% of all international migrants.

What were the three main causes of this? Watch the video below to find out.

 
 
 
 

TYPES OF FORCED MIGRATION

Forced migration refers to the movements of refugees and internally displaced people (those displaced by conflicts) as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects.

  1. Conflict-induced displacement people forced to move due to armed conflict such as civil war, violence or persecution based on nationality, race, religion, political opinion, social group or sexual orientation. In 2015 there were 15 million refugees and 40 million internal displaced people (IDPs)
  2. Development induced displacement people forced to move due to large scale infrastructure projects e.g. dams, airports, roads, mining, deforestation or conservation. 10 million people a year are displaced due to dam constructions. The 3 Gorges Dam in China displaced 1.25 million people.
  3. Disaster-induced displacement people forced to move due to natural disasters such as volcanoes, hurricanes, landslides, environmental change (global warming) and human induced disasters such as the release of radiation and chemicals.

Source

 

TYPES OF FORCED MIGRANT

Asylum seekers: people who have moved across an international border in search of protection under the 1951 Refugee Convention, but whose claim for refugee status has not yet been determined.

Annual asylum claims in Western Europe, Australia, Canada and the USA combined rose from some 90,400 in 1983 to 323,050 in 1988 and then peaked at 828,645 in 1992.

Refugee: a person residing outside his or her country of nationality, who is unable or unwilling to return because of a ‘well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a political social group, or political opinion’. 

The global refugee population grew from 2.4 million in 1975 to 14.9 million in 1990



Development displacees: people who are forced to move as a result of development projects. These include large-scale infrastructure projects such as dams, roads, ports, airports; urban clearance initiatives; mining and deforestation; and the introduction of conservation parks/reserves and biosphere projects. Affected people usually remain within the borders of their country. 

It has been estimated that during the 1990s some 90 to 100 million people around the world were displaced as a result of infrastructural development projects.

Internally displaced people: people who have been forced to flee their homes suddenly or unexpectedly in large numbers, as a result of armed conflict, internal strife, systematic violations of human rights or natural or man-made disasters, and who are within the territory of their own country. 

There is no specifically-mandated body to provide assistance to IDPs, as there is with refugees.



Smuggled people: migrants who are moved illegally for profit. They are partners in a commercial transaction. This is not to say that the practice is not without substantial exploitation and danger. People who think they are being smuggled may run the risk of actually being trafficked.

Smuggled migrants may include those who have been forcibly displaced as well as those who have left their homeland in search of better economic and social opportunities. The motivations are often mixed. A

Environmental and disaster displacees: sometimes referred to as ‘environmental refugees’ or ‘disaster refugees’, in fact most of those displaced by environmental factors or disasters do not leave the borders of their homeland.

This category includes people displaced as a result of natural disasters (floods, volcanoes, landslides, earthquakes), environmental change (deforestation, desertification, land degradation, global warming) and human-made disasters (industrial accidents, radioactivity).



Trafficked people: people who are moved by deception or coercion for the purposes of exploitation. The profit in trafficking people comes not from their movement, but from the sale of their sexual services or labour in the country of destination. The trafficked person may be physically prevented from leaving, or be bound by debt or threat of violence to themselves or their family in their country of origin.

Source

 

 

FORCED MIGRATION AS A RESULT OF POLITICAL PUSH FACTORS

Case Study: Syria Conflict

Create a shared document summarising political causes & the effects on people and places. Include a summary of facts and data, maps, graphs and a video.

 
 

FORCED MIGRATION AS A RESULT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PUSH FACTORS

Case Study: Borno State, Nigeria

Create a shared document summarising enviornmental causes & the effects on people and places. Include a summary of facts and data, maps, graphs and a video.

 Climate change and the dessication of Lake Chad is seen as one reason for increasing religious extremism in Borno State, Nort-East Nigeria.

Climate change and the dessication of Lake Chad is seen as one reason for increasing religious extremism in Borno State, Nort-East Nigeria.