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Time-Space Convergence and the Reduction in the Friction of Distance


Explain how a reduction in the friction of distance results in time-space convergence.

Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of two types of transport (air, ocean, road, rail, pipeline) responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

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Time-Space Convergence and the Reduction in the Friction of Distance


Explain how a reduction in the friction of distance results in time-space convergence.

Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of two types of transport (air, ocean, road, rail, pipeline) responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

Isochronic map showing time taken to travel certain distances

Isochronic map showing time taken to travel certain distances

Francis Galton's isochronic map 1881

Francis Galton's isochronic map 1881

 

KEY CONCEPTS

time-space convergence (n)

This process concerns the changing relationship between time and space, and notably the impacts of transportation improvements on such a relationship. It is closely related to the concept of speed, which indicates how much space can be travelled over a specific amount of time.

friction of distance (n)

As the distance from a place increases, the interactions with that place decrease, usually because the time and costs involved increase with distance.

 
 

key words

 
 

timeline

  1. Read pp 322-323 Core Book
  2. Create a timeline of events that led to the world becoming smaller. Name the invention and elaborate on how it contributed to time-space convergence.
 
  1. Watch the video. Identify inventions and explain how they contributed to time-space convergence.
 
 

exam question

Explain what is meant by time-space convergence. (10 marks)

 

Mark scheme

The key idea is that of a “shrinking world” thanks to technological innovation over time. Expect some explanation of the technologies that enable this change and empirical evidence to support it (for example, time taken to circumnavigate the world etc.). This may be shown in diagrammatic form and should be credited.

Other approaches to explanation might include an analysis of the range of flows/global interactions that are enabled by different technologies (and the specific impacts they bring as aspects of the convergence, for example, cultural dilution, McDonaldization or growth of “global village”).

Good answers may recognize the uneven nature of time–space compression (not all people and places experience it to the same extent; some places have “opted-out” of globalization etc.).

At band C, answers may be descriptive of reduced times for travel (provide facts about reducing sailing times etc.) without addressing the concept of time–space convergence very explicitly, or provide a superficial account of the concept but without much real evidence to ground the explanation.

For bands D and E, answers will be focused on both dimensions of space and time (global technologies bring places/people nearer together by reducing the time taken for instantaneous interactions/flows to occur) and the explanation is well supported with examples. Band E answers may additionally show especially adroit handling of the concept or employ very good terminology.

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Ocean Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of ocean transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

Ocean Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of ocean transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

This video will show and name important locations for ocean transport. Can you guess which ones?

 
 

key words

intermodal transportation

transporting freight by using two or more transportation modes. This is made possible by transportation terminals linking different modes of transport e.g road - rail - sea

 

bulk cargo

a commodity that is transported unpacked, in large quantities.

 

break bulk shipping

Break bulk refers to cargo that needs to be individually loaded.

 
 

ocean transport

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changes in speed

containerisation

Containerisation is a system of standardised transport, that uses a common size of steel container to transport goods. These containers can easily be transferred between different modes of transport – container ships to lorries and trains. This makes transport and trade of goods cheaper and more efficient.

 
 
 

changes in capacity

Container-carrying capacity has increased 1200% since 1968.

 
 
 
 

task

  1. Read the BBC article above
  2. Make notes on features of the new EEE ship that increase capacity + Panama Canal
  3. Create a document entitled "The Evolution of Container Ships"
  4. Include the ship name, year and capacity and a picture from the Internet.
 

further reading

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Air Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of air transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

Air Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of air transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

 

advantages and disadvantages

 

changes in speed and capacity

 

Boeing: A Century of Aviation from the Wright Brothers to Mars

 
 
 

task

  1. Access the resources above
  2. Make notes on the events and their dates that lead to changes in speed and capacity of air transport
  3. Create an illustrated timeline of events 
 
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Extension and Density of Networks


Examine the changes in the Internet network in terms of the extension of links and nodes and the intensity of use at a national or global scale.

Extension and Density of Networks


Examine the changes in the Internet network in terms of the extension of links and nodes and the intensity of use at a national or global scale.

In pairs, draw a picture to explain how the Internet works. Explain this to the class.

 
 
 
A 53Tbps undersea Internet cable

A 53Tbps undersea Internet cable

 
 
 

global undersea cable network

  • There are 277 undersea fibre optic cables in the world today.
  • These cables carry 99% of all international communications, including Internet and telecom traffic.
  • They span a total of 986,543 km.
 
 

TASK

  1. Briefly explain, with the aid of a diagram, how data travels around the globe
  2. Note 3 facts about undersea fibre-optic cables
  3. Read pp 43-46 HL Guinness book
  4. On a blank world map, label facts and data about Internet usage worldwide
 
 

history of the internet

  1. Summarise the main factors influencing the growth of the Internet
 
 
 
 
 

intensity of use at a national or global scale

 
 
 
 

map showing global facebook friend connections

 

further reading

Guinness Textbook / 43 - 47

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ICT in Civil Society


Describe the role of information and communications technology (ICT) in civil society and the transmission and flow of images, ideas, information and finance.

ICT in Civil Society


Describe the role of information and communications technology (ICT) in civil society and the transmission and flow of images, ideas, information and finance.

ICT

  1. ICT stands for information and communication technologies

Civil society

  1. society considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity.

 
 

what is civil society?

Watch the first 3 minutes.

task

  1. Read pp 48-49
  2. Summarise and illustrate the four interpretations of global civil society as proposed by Anheier, Glasius and Kaldor (p48)
  3. Draw Fig. 5 - the eDemocracy conceptual model
  4. Research and present examples of one of the main types of civil society groupings as proposed by the UN (p48/49)
 

TECHNOLOGY & the arab spring

  1. List examples of how technology assisted the Arab Spring
  1. Make a simple timeline of key events, places and people in the 2010 Arab Spring.
 
 

freedom of the press

  1. Describe the distribution of press freedom globally. Name regions and countries.
 

censorship in iran