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sand dunes s africa extreme.jpg
permafrost periglacial spring russia.jpg
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Global Distribution


Describe and explain the global-scale distribution of cold and high altitude environments (polar, glacial areas, periglacial areas, high mountains in non-polar places) and hot arid environments (hot deserts and semi-arid areas)

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Global Distribution


Describe and explain the global-scale distribution of cold and high altitude environments (polar, glacial areas, periglacial areas, high mountains in non-polar places) and hot arid environments (hot deserts and semi-arid areas)

TWO EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS

Hot, arid environments

  • hot deserts
  • semi-arid areas

Cold and high-altitude environments

  • polar areas
  • glacial areas
  • periglacial areas
  • high mountains in non-tropical latitudes
 
 

global distribution

 

TASK: Show the global distribution of extreme environments on a blank world map

 

DESCRIBING DISTRIBUTION

 Global Subregions (UN)

Global Subregions (UN)

Distribution refers to the way something is spread out or arranged over a geographic area. 

Describe the distributions using the words below to help you. Check your answers by hovering over the images.

 

north/south/east/west                          named continents/regions                         coastal/inland                     highest/lowest                                         hemisphere                            tropics/mid latitude/polar    

 In coastal areas. Highest in south west coast. Lowest north east coast and interior.

In coastal areas. Highest in south west coast. Lowest north east coast and interior.

 Found in all regions of the world. Highest concentrations in northern hemisphere. Lowest in central Asia, northern North America.

Found in all regions of the world. Highest concentrations in northern hemisphere. Lowest in central Asia, northern North America.

 Highest densities in south. Mainly extreme south and south west borders. Very low densities in north.

Highest densities in south. Mainly extreme south and south west borders. Very low densities in north.

 

TASK: Add labels describing the location of extreme environments

EXPLAINING the GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOT, ARID ENVIRONMENTS

EXPLAINING GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLD AND HIGH ALTITUDE ENVIRONMENTS

 Namib Desert. Namibia, South West Africa.

Namib Desert. Namibia, South West Africa.

Cold and high-altitude environments are generally found along constructive plate margins, where fold mountains form, or polar regions.

plate boundaries.png

Fold Mountains

Constructive plate margins

Mountainous regions have a high elevation, where atmospheric pressure is lower which causes lower temperatures.

elevation pressure.jpg

The sun's rays are received more easily, however, more solar radiation is reflected due to the high reflectivity of snow.

albedo snow.jpg

At higher latitudes less heat penetrates the atmosphere as it is thicker and spread across a greater area.

 Latitude and solar radiation

Latitude and solar radiation

Hot, arid environments are found in the tropics. These areas receive direct sunlight in summer and winter.

 Tropics and sunlight

Tropics and sunlight

Hadley cells in the atmosphere also cause aridity as the warm moist air rises from the equator.

This condenses and precipitates and the cooler air sinks over the tropical latitudes. The air is drier as cool air cannot hold as much moisture. The air then heats as it spreads over tropical regions and rises again.

 Hadley cells and climate

Hadley cells and climate

Hot, arid climates can also be found in rain shadows, mountainous regions with arid areas behind them. The mountains cause relief rainfall and then the dry air blows across the landscape drying it out.

 Rain shadow effect

Rain shadow effect

 

TASK: Add labelled diagrams to your world map that explain the location of extreme environments.  Read pp 107-108 and add extra information.

 

REVIEW

Form pairs with person A unable to see the diagrams. Person B describes the picture for A to draw.

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sand dunes s africa extreme.jpg

Relief and Climate


Describe the relief and climatic characteristics that make environments extreme, including unreliability and intensity of rainfall in arid environments and the risk of flash floods

Relief and Climate


Describe the relief and climatic characteristics that make environments extreme, including unreliability and intensity of rainfall in arid environments and the risk of flash floods

Describe the climate of the two places below. Include data in your answer.

 

task

  1. Use the following resources to find out information on the climate and relief of different extreme environments:

    • the resources on this page

    • 108-109 of course book

    • internet research

 

resources

 
 

practice exam question

Describe the climatic characteristics of either periglacial or glacial environments. [4 marks]

 
 

Mark Scheme

Key aspects will be temperature, temperature range, seasonality, precipitation.

Award 1 mark for each valid statement, supported by some quantification or development.

 

permafrost periglacial spring russia.jpg

Challenges of Extreme Environments


How relief, climate, human discomfort, inaccessibility, and remoteness present challenges for human habitation and resource development

Challenges of Extreme Environments


How relief, climate, human discomfort, inaccessibility, and remoteness present challenges for human habitation and resource development

Review the climate and relief of:

  1. Cold and high-altitude environments (polar, glacial areas, periglacial areas, high mountains in non-tropical latitudes)

  2. Hot, arid environments (hot deserts and semi-arid areas)

Calculate and label the following: 

  • Precipitation: type, annual & monthly rates

  • Temperature: annual range, monthly averages

  • Seasonal differences

When would freeze-thaw weathering likely be  most active?

 

PERMAFROST & PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS

 A periglacial landscape. Jackson Hole, USA

A periglacial landscape. Jackson Hole, USA

Periglacial environments have a cold climate and are frequently marginal (next to) to glacial environments. Subject to intense cycles of freezing and thawing of superficial sediments. 

Permafrost is soil, rock or sediment that is frozen for more than two consecutive years. Permafrost is closely associated with periglacial environments and permafrost processes take place within a periglacial environment

 

CHALLENGES OF PERMAFROST

Access the resources and make notes on how periglacial environments create challenges for human habitation and resource development, as well as the measures used to overcome them.

 

HUMAN HABITATION AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Illustrate the challenges and explain how they affect human habitation and resource development.

 Agriculture in the Mojave Desert, USA

Agriculture in the Mojave Desert, USA

 
 

RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT / CASE STUDY: THE TRANS ALASKA PIPELINE

INTRODUCTION

 
tropical desert.jpg

Reasons for low population density


Explain the other factors responsible for a low density of population in these areas: human discomfort, inaccessibility, remoteness.

Identify ways in which people adapt their activities to extremes of weather and climate.

Reasons for low population density


Explain the other factors responsible for a low density of population in these areas: human discomfort, inaccessibility, remoteness.

Identify ways in which people adapt their activities to extremes of weather and climate.

population density map.jpg

Extreme environments typically have low population densities. Why?

 

 

 

human discomfort                  inaccessibility                        remoteness

 
 

HUMAN DISCOMFORT

 
 
 

ways in which people modify their activities in extreme environments

sahel 2.jpg

 

  1. Read p 82 of your study guide
  2. Create a picture or collage illustrating the ways in which people modify their activities in Extreme Environments