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Patterns and Trends


Identify and explain the changing patterns and trends of regional and global disparities of life expectancy, education and income

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Patterns and Trends


Identify and explain the changing patterns and trends of regional and global disparities of life expectancy, education and income

 
 

why is there a development gap?

Summarise one of the development theories below for the class. Include visuals and more specific information. Use the Patterns and Change book and the Internet for your information.

  • Modernisation Theory (p106)
  • Dependency Theory (p107)
  • World System Theory (p108)
 

 

regional and global disparitieS

Task 1

  1. Read pp 108-113 Patterns & Change Book
  2. Create a 10 minute presentation describing and explaining the changing patterns and trends in disparities, globally and regionally, for one of the following:
  • life expectancy
  • education
  • income

   3. Explore data using the link below and include a screenshot in your presentation.

 

Task 2

Complete the grid showing patterns, trends and reasons for disparity

 

PLENARY

Review patterns and trends for life expectancy, education and income. Create a Venn diagram to compare and contrast.

venn diagram png.png
 
 

further reading

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Millennium Development Goals


Examine the progress made in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in poverty reduction, education and health.

Millennium Development Goals


Examine the progress made in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in poverty reduction, education and health.

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REVIEW 

 
 

examinE the progress made in poverty reduction, education and health

task

MDG-infographic-11.jpg
  1. Read foreword by Ban Ki-Moon - Secretary General of the United Nations
  2. Read pp 4-8. Summarise developments made in the following areas onto the worksheet above: 
    • Poverty Reduction
    • Education
    • Health
  3. Create a visual poster summarising the progress made towards one MDG like the example on the right
 

Progress made in meeting MDGs

  1. Read pp 115-119 Patterns and Change book
  2. Annotate the world map with information relating to progress made on MDGs, using different colours for the following topics:
  • Poverty reduction
  • Education
  • Health
 

Extension task

  1. Read further into the progress made towards the MDGs.
  2. Add information to your world map.

 

progress towards MDGs in Nigeria

POPULATION EXPLOSION CAUSING POVERTY CRISIS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

 
 
 

exam question

Examine the view that rapid population growth will prevent some countries from meeting their Millennium Development Goals. (15 marks)

 

Mark Scheme

Responses would be expected to show a clear understanding of the MDGs.

Responses may show that increased population numbers could be an obstacle to health, welfare and education provision, especially where there is poor governance of resources. However, there are other issues to consider, such as growing wealth inequalities, innovation resulting from population growth, corruption, civil war.

It is expected that there should be some discussion here about the link between population growth and poverty. Reducing population is not an MDG; rather it is an expected outcome that will become evident as countries reach their MDGs.

The strongest answers may conclude that some MDGs are easier to reach than others or that rapid population growth in some countries may have the opposite effect.

Responses presenting accurate, specific and well-detailed knowledge and understanding of MDGs with relevant examples and evaluation of the links with rapid population growth will reach level E or F.

Examiners report

While the candidates understood the MDGs, there was a weak treatment of how rapid population growth will prevent countries from meeting the goals. Arguments tended to be unsubstantiated and lacked sound examples.


 

further reading

  1. Read pp 113-115 Patterns and Change Book
 
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Reducing Disparities


Discuss the different ways in which disparities can be reduced with an emphasis on trade and market access, debt relief, aid and remittances

Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce disparities.

Reducing Disparities


Discuss the different ways in which disparities can be reduced with an emphasis on trade and market access, debt relief, aid and remittances

Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce disparities.

DEFINITIONS

 

theories for reducing the development gap

  1. Read about the three theories on 122-123 Patterns and Change book
  2. Create a simple poster explaining the theory
  3. Present this to the class
  4. Complete the summary grid

 

 

 

trade and development

Click to visit interactive map

Click to visit interactive map

 

Regional Trade Blocs

A regional trading bloc is a group of countries within a geographical region that protect themselves from imports from non-members. Trading blocs are a form of economic integration, and increasingly shape the pattern of world trade. There are several types of trading bloc:

Preferential Trade Area

Preferential Trade Areas (PTAs) exist when countries within a geographical region agree to reduce or eliminate tariff barriers on selected goods imported from other members of the area. This is often the first small step towards the creation of a trading bloc.

Free Trade Area

Free Trade Areas (FTAs) are created when two or more countries in a region agree to reduce or eliminate barriers to trade on all goods coming from other members.

Customs Union

A customs union involves the removal of tariff barriers between members, plus the acceptance of a common (unified) external tariff against non-members. This means that members may negotiate as a single bloc with 3rd parties, such as with other trading blocs, or with the WTO.

Common Market

A ‘common market’ (or single market) is the first significant step towards full economic integration, and occurs when member countries trade freely in all economic resources – not just tangible goods. This means that all barriers to trade in goods, services, capital, and labour are removed. In addition, as well as removing tariffs, non-tariff barriers are also reduced and eliminated. For a common market to be successful there must also be a significant level of harmonisation of micro-economic policies, and common rules regarding monopoly power and other anti-competitive practices. There may also be common policies affecting key industries, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) of the European Single Market (ESM).

 

The main disadvantages of trading blocs

Loss of benefits

The benefits of free trade between countries in different blocs is lost.

Distortion of trade

Trading blocs are likely to distort world trade, and reduce the beneficial effects of specialisation and the exploitation of comparative advantage.

Inefficiencies and trade diversion

Inefficient producers within the bloc can be protected from more efficient ones outside the bloc. For example, inefficient European farmers may be protected from low-cost imports from developing countries. Trade diversion arises when trade is diverted away from efficient producers who are based outside the trading area.

Retaliation

The development of one regional trading bloc is likely to stimulate the development of others. This can lead to trade disputes, such as those between the EU and NAFTA, including the recent Boeing (US)/Airbus (EU) dispute. The EU and US have a long history of trade disputes, including the dispute over US steel tariffs, which were declared illegal by the WTO in 2005. In addition, there are the so-called beef wars with the US applying £60m tariffs on EU beef in response to the EU’s ban on US beef treated with hormones; and complaints to the WTO of each other’s generous agricultural support.

During the 1970s many former UK colonies formed their own trading blocs in reaction to the UK joining the European common market.

The main advantages for members

Free trade within the bloc

Knowing that they have free access to each other's markets, members are encouraged to specialise. This means that, at the regional level, there is a wider application of the principle of comparative advantage.

Market access and trade creation

Easier access to each other’s markets means that trade between members is likely to increase. Trade creation exists when free trade enables high cost domestic producers to be replaced by lower cost, and more efficient imports. Because low cost imports lead to lower priced imports, there is a 'consumption effect', with increased demand resulting from lower prices.

Economies of scale

Producers can benefit from the application of scale economies, which will lead to lower costs and lower prices for consumers.

Jobs

Jobs may be created as a consequence of increased trade between member economies.

Protection

Firms inside the bloc are protected from cheaper imports from outside, such as the protection of the EU shoe industry from cheap imports from China and Vietnam.

 
  1. Read 124-130
  2. Answer q 1-6 p 130
 

CASE STUDY: resource nationalisation in bolivia

Bolivia is an example of a country that is challenging the free market philosophy. It introduced a resource nationalisation policy in 2006.

 
 

CASE STUDY EXAMPLES

  1. Complete activities on GATW
 
 

remittances vs FDI & AID

 
 
 

fdi

 

AID