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Measurements of regional and global disparities


Define indices of infant mortality, education, nutrition, income, marginalization and Human Development Index (HDI).

Explain the value of the indices in measuring disparities across the globe.

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Measurements of regional and global disparities


Define indices of infant mortality, education, nutrition, income, marginalization and Human Development Index (HDI).

Explain the value of the indices in measuring disparities across the globe.

 
 

INDEXES measuring development

COMPOSITE INDEX MEASUREMENTS

  • Human Development Index
  • Marginalization

SINGLE INDEX MEASUREMENTS

  • Infant Mortality
  • Education
  • Nutrition
  • Income

 

    COMPOSITE INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Composite indicators use a combination of different indicators to get a more accurate picture.

     

    GDP vs GNI (Single Index)

    The gross domestic product (GDP) is one of the primary indicators used to gauge the health of a country's economy. It represents the total dollar value of all goods and services produced over a specific time period; you can think of it as the size of the economy.

    The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP) plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents

     

    HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX / HDI (Composite Index)

    The Human Development Report is published every year since 1990. It looks at countries’ development beyond economic performance as measured by HDI. This single statistic summarizes a country’s achievements along three key dimensions of human development. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions:

    • Long and healthy life assessed by life expectancy at birth, using a minimum value of 20 years and maximum value of 85 years.
    • Being knowledgeable measured by mean of years of schooling for adults aged 25 years and expected years of schooling for children of school entering age. The indicators are normalized using a minimum value of zero and maximum aspirational values of 15 and 18 years, respectively. The two indices are combined into an education index using arithmetic mean.
    • A decent standard of living measured by gross national income per capita. The goalpost for minimum income is $100 (PPP) and the maximum is $75,000 (PPP). The HDI uses the logarithm of income to reflect the diminishing importance of income with increasing GNI.
     

    STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES OF SINGLE AND COMPOSITE INDEXES

    Strengths of the HDI

    1. It is a composite indicator which measures life expectancy, education and per capita incomes.

    2. It allows for comparison between regions and countries.
    3. It has been in existence since 1990 and allows for analysis of change over time.

    Weaknesses of the HDI

    1. It does not take into account environmental cost of development.
    2. It could be based on unreliable data.
    3. It is an average and does not show internal disparities.
    4. It does not measure human rights, levels of corruption, gender equality etc.

     

    Weaknesses of GNI:

    1. GNI is not a composite indicator such as HDI, which allows more (non-economic) variables to be measured
    2. GNI does not indicate spatial or demographic disparities within countries
    3. GNI does not give any indication of human rights, health or gender equality
    4. GNI does not take into account purchasing power parity
    5. GNI excludes the informal economy (unofficial work paid in cash)
     

    TASK

    1. List the different types of indicator
    2. Explain what a composite indicator is
    3. Compare & contrast GDP and GNI
    4. Describe and explain the HDI
    5. Summarise the strengths and weaknesses of single and composite indicators
     
     

    EXPLORE GLOBAL DISPARITIES WITH HDI

    Click to access interactive website

    Click to access interactive website

     
    Click to access interactive website

    Click to access interactive website

     

    TASK

    Screen Shot 2017-08-28 at 15.37.19.png
    1. Find data examples for HDI countries in the top, middle and bottom of global averages.

    2. Read pp 83-84 Patterns & Change Textbook

    3. Prepare a five minute presentation for your index including:

      •  a full definition of the index

      • explanation of link with development

      • observable patterns and trends

    4. Indices:

      • Infant Mortality

      • Education

      • Nutrition

      • Marginalisation

     
     

    REVIEW

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    Origin of Disparities


    Explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from ethnicity, residence, parental education, income, employment (formal and informal) and land ownership.

    Origin of Disparities


    Explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from ethnicity, residence, parental education, income, employment (formal and informal) and land ownership.

    global WEALTH DISPARITY

     

    task

     
    1. Read pp 92-95 Guinness Patterns and Change
    2. What is the Gini coefficient?
    3. Describe the global variation in the Gini coefficient shown in Fig.1 p 92
    4. How has the Gini coefficient changed over time for two named countries? (Fig.2 p 93)
    5. What were the four main findings of the report Growing Unequal (p93)

     

     

     
     

    MEASURING DISPARITY

    Global Distribution of Gini Coefficient (2008)

    The Gini coefficient (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. 

     
     
     

    lorenz curve and gini coefficient

     
     

    cumulative causation (gunnar myrdal / 1957)

     
     

    disparities resulting from different factors 

     

    Disparities in Health in the UK

    • Health gap between rich and poor is growing
    • Those in the poorest areas have highest risk of premature death, infant death.
    • Residents of north 20% more likely to die before age 75 compared to south.
     

    disparity in new york

     
     

    poverty and obesity in the USA

     
     

    education

     
     

    income

    Income Inequality in the US (Gini Coefficient)

    Income Inequality in the US (Gini Coefficient)

                  Source

                  Source

     
     

    employment

     
     

    causes - disparities and inequities group task

    Guinness // 95-103

    1. Create a short presentation summarising the findings from your section.

    2. Include: bullet point summaries of information, data, images/maps/graphs.
    3. Present in 5 mins.

    TOPICS

    • Ethnicity
    • Residence
    • Parental Education
    • Income
    • Employment (Formal and Informal)
    • Land Ownership
    • Brazil Case Study
     
     

    ethnic disparity in washington d.c.

     
     

    residence 

     

    how economic inequality harms societies

     

    overview

    This question focuses specifically on the way in which political borders become less significant with the free movement of people, goods, capital and ideas in a multi-governmental organisation such as the EU. Answers must therefore focus on this aspect and address issues that deal specifically with the diminishing effectiveness of political borders.

    It is likely that answers will focus on the removal of all trade barriers, customs and travel restrictions to all EU citizens. This means that goods, people and labour, capital and ideas can flow freely around the 27 members of the European Union without any form of control. This renders political boundaries and national borders completely redundant in this respect.

    Although they continue to demarcate the spatial extent of sovereign territory and therefore the limits of national policy, laws and society, their physical location are purely symbolic to these kinds of flows. The Schengen Agreement coordinates security intelligence and action to the extent that police forces in one member state may continue their pursuit of suspected criminals across political borders where they would previously have to stop.

    The agreement also imposes a common immigration policy whereby the immigration status of an individual in one member state enjoys the same status in another and can therefore cross internal political borders freely.

    The strongest answers are likely to consider the increased effectiveness of the EU’s external borders whereby security and immigration checks are increased under the terms of the Schengen Agreement. These external borders also become more significant in the sense that goods, people and capital are subject to much stronger trade and travel restrictions through the use of tariffs, quotas and passport checks and visa requirements.