Europe's largest glacier, The Aletsch, in winter / Eastern Bernese Alps, Valais, Switzerland.


Inside a Glacier / BBC

glacial environment (n)

An area covered with snow and ice on a permanent/long-term basis, where glacial processes are operating. Can be on different scales including ice sheet, ice caps, glaciers.

landform (n)

a natural feature of the earth's surface


ice sheets, ice caps and glaciers

  1. How are ice sheets, ice caps and glaciers different?
  2. Research these terms and add information to your notes.




  1. Read the text above and annotate the pdf with information about glacial systems



Why does climate change?

Glaciers advance when inputs exceed outputs, when there is more accumulation of snow in the winter than melting of snow in the summer.

But what are the historic reasons for changing climates? What causes warmer and colder years? Human-induced climate change plays an important role in the current warming period, but natural, astronomical factors are also responsible for historic changes in climate.

Read the excerpt from "Africa: A Biography of the Continent" by John Reader and make notes on the three astronomical causes of climate change.



processes and landforms of glacial environments


GLACIAL erosion

 Plucking and Abrasion

Plucking and Abrasion

  1. Name, describe and illustrate two processes of glacial erosion

landforms of erosion



  1. Name, describe and illustrate two forms of glacial erosion above
  2. Download book "Glacial Landforms and the Ice Age"
  3. Read pp 420 + 424
  4. Make detailed notes on glacial processes and landforms
  5. Name, describe and explain each landform of erosion

landforms of deposition


landforms presentation

  1. In groups, create a presentation describing and explaining glacial landforms of erosion and deposition.