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Global Trade


Global trade in materials, manufactured goods and services

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Global Trade


Global trade in materials, manufactured goods and services

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Aid, Loans & Debt Relief


An overview of international aid, loans and debt relief

Aid, Loans & Debt Relief


An overview of international aid, loans and debt relief

International Aid

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Loans

 

Debt Relief

Countries receiving debt relief

World Bank

 

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Remittances


International remittances from economic migrants

Remittances


International remittances from economic migrants

Remittances - Money or goods sent home to families by migrant workers
— IMF
 
 

KEY FACTS

  • 1 in 10 people worldwide are directly associated to remittances
  • The US is the world's largest remittance source country
  • Remittances make up to 10% of developing families' incomes
  • Remittance flows have tripled in the last decade
  • Remittances total $530bn in 2012
  • Remittances are 3X more than the total global aid budget
 
 
 
 

Remittances Case Study: Kerala, South India

 

 

Why remittances are effective at reducing socio-economic disparities:

  • often hard currency/greater value in receiving country
  • increases local spending/boosts local market
  • often shared with extended families/increases standard of living of a large number of individuals
  • large amount of money is transferred/gives large investment fund for communities
  • remittances are stable source of money/reliable for development whereas other forms of investment, such as aid, can vary
  • flows in one direction / does not result in external debt.
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Illegal Flows


Illegal flows, such as trafficked people, counterfeit goods and narcotics

Illegal Flows


Illegal flows, such as trafficked people, counterfeit goods and narcotics

 

Which countries do you think will be mentioned in this lesson?

 
 

Human trafficking

  • 21 million victims of trafficking around world
  • 40% of trafficked people do forced labour in factories, restaurants & building sites
  • 53% exploited in the sex industry
  • 12 countries reported trafficking for organ removal
  • Most trafficking occurs within one country, other forms from low income > high income countries
  1. Describe the main characteristics of human trafficking
 

Counterfeit Goods

  • Imports of counterfeit and pirated goods worth $456 billion per year (half a trillion dollars)
  • Same value as global drugs trade
  • 2.5% of global imports. 5% of EU imports
  • US, Italian and French products most affected
  • Counterfeit trade means lost revenues for companies and lower taxes for governments
  • Discourages companies from making expensive research into new products or medicines
  • Most goods originate in middle income countries. China largest top producer of counterfeit and pirated goods

Source

 

TASK

  1. Describe the global pattern of production in counterfeit goods
  2. Calculate the total value of counterfeit products related to the fashion industry.
 
 

Narcotics

  • Global market worth half a trillion dollars
  • Second largest illicit market after counterfeit and pirate goods
  • Harms of the global drug trade fall upon developing countries, particularly those which are in politically fragile circumstances. In these countries, drug trafficking groups’ use of violence can compel governments to “spend greater resources on law enforcement in order to address these attacks on domestic stability, directing funding away from sustainable development”.
  • This conflict between drug trafficking groups and the government in developing countries can be a self-perpetuating cycle that increases poverty, weakens the state, and resultantly may empower trafficking groups. 

Source

1. Describe the connection between illegal production, law enforcement and environmental damage

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FDI & Outsourcing


Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) & outsourcing by transnational corporations (TNCs), and ways in which this networks places and markets

FDI & Outsourcing


Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) & outsourcing by transnational corporations (TNCs), and ways in which this networks places and markets

FDI involves the investment by a company into the structures, equipment or oganisations of a foreign country. 

FDI flows are measured in USD and as a share of GDP. FDI creates stable and long-lasting links between economies.

 
 
 
 

OUTSOURCING

 
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