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Political Factors


Political factors that affect global interactions: multi-governmental organisations (MGOs) and free trade zones.

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Political Factors


Political factors that affect global interactions: multi-governmental organisations (MGOs) and free trade zones.

Why does Donald Trump not like the NAFTA free trade agreement? List his main arguments.

 

GOALS

  • removing barriers to free trade in the region
  • increasing the free movement of people, labour, goods, and capital across national borders,
  • reducing the possibility of regional armed conflict
  • adopting regional agreements on policy issues, such as the environment, climate change and migration
 

TASK

  1. Read pp 552-553
  2. Define "multi-government organisations" (MGOs)
  3. Describe four different types of trading blocs
  4. Explain the reasons for establishing trading blocs
  5. Watch the videos below and respond to the key questions
  6. Read pp 553-554.
  7. Create a poster explaining NAFTA to Trump supporters:
  • History and Aims
  • Successes
  • Criticisms in Canada and Mexico
 

MGO CASE STUDY: NAFTA

What are tarriffs and how do they protect national economies?

Using examples, explain why NAFTA has been both good and bad for the US economy.

 
 

FREE TRADE ZONES CASE STUDY: INCHEON, SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA

 
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Time-Space Convergence and the Reduction in the Friction of Distance


Transport developments over time

Time-Space Convergence and the Reduction in the Friction of Distance


Transport developments over time

 Isochronic map showing time taken to travel certain distances

Isochronic map showing time taken to travel certain distances

 Francis Galton's isochronic map 1881

Francis Galton's isochronic map 1881

 

KEY CONCEPTS

time-space convergence (n)

This process concerns the changing relationship between time and space, and notably the impacts of transportation improvements on such a relationship. It is closely related to the concept of speed, which indicates how much space can be travelled over a specific amount of time.

friction of distance (n)

As the distance from a place increases, the interactions with that place decrease, usually because the time and costs involved increase with distance.

 
 

key words

 
 

timeline

  1. Read pp 322-323 Core Book
  2. Create a timeline of events that led to the world becoming smaller. Name the invention and elaborate on how it contributed to time-space convergence.
 
  1. Watch the video. Identify inventions and explain how they contributed to time-space convergence.
 
 

exam question

Explain what is meant by time-space convergence. (10 marks)

 

Mark scheme

The key idea is that of a “shrinking world” thanks to technological innovation over time. Expect some explanation of the technologies that enable this change and empirical evidence to support it (for example, time taken to circumnavigate the world etc.). This may be shown in diagrammatic form and should be credited.

Other approaches to explanation might include an analysis of the range of flows/global interactions that are enabled by different technologies (and the specific impacts they bring as aspects of the convergence, for example, cultural dilution, McDonaldization or growth of “global village”).

Good answers may recognize the uneven nature of time–space compression (not all people and places experience it to the same extent; some places have “opted-out” of globalization etc.).

At band C, answers may be descriptive of reduced times for travel (provide facts about reducing sailing times etc.) without addressing the concept of time–space convergence very explicitly, or provide a superficial account of the concept but without much real evidence to ground the explanation.

For bands D and E, answers will be focused on both dimensions of space and time (global technologies bring places/people nearer together by reducing the time taken for instantaneous interactions/flows to occur) and the explanation is well supported with examples. Band E answers may additionally show especially adroit handling of the concept or employ very good terminology.

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Ocean Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of ocean transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

Ocean Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of ocean transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

This video will show and name important locations for ocean transport. Can you guess which ones?

 
 

key words

intermodal transportation

transporting freight by using two or more transportation modes. This is made possible by transportation terminals linking different modes of transport e.g road - rail - sea

 

bulk cargo

a commodity that is transported unpacked, in large quantities.

 

break bulk shipping

Break bulk refers to cargo that needs to be individually loaded.

 
 

ocean transport

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changes in speed

containerisation

Containerisation is a system of standardised transport, that uses a common size of steel container to transport goods. These containers can easily be transferred between different modes of transport – container ships to lorries and trains - called intermodal transport. This makes transport and trade of goods cheaper and more efficient.

 
 
 
 
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changes in capacity

Container-carrying capacity has increased 1200% since 1968.

 
 
 
 

task

  1. Read the BBC article above
  2. Make notes on features of the new EEE ship that increase capacity + Panama Canal
  3. Create a document entitled "The Evolution of Container Ships"
  4. Include the ship name, year and capacity and a picture from the Internet.
 

further reading

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Air Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of air transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

Air Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of air transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

LAX Terminals 4, 5, & 6

 
 
 

changes in speed and capacity

 

Boeing: A Century of Aviation

Supersonic Air Travel & Concorde

History of Commercial Aviation & Airbus

Airbus A380

 

task

  1. Access the resources above
  2. Make notes on the events and their dates that lead to changes in speed and capacity of air transport
  3. Create an illustrated timeline of events 
 
 

SYNTHESIS

Explain how air transport increased its speed and capacity over time. [10 marks]

 
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Communication Infrastructure & Use


Describe and explain global patterns and trends in landline, mobile phone, Internet use and access to broadband 

Communication Infrastructure & Use


Describe and explain global patterns and trends in landline, mobile phone, Internet use and access to broadband 

 Map showing Internet exchanges (2015)

Map showing Internet exchanges (2015)

 

TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGY USE

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DIGITAL DIVIDE

  • Young-Old
  • Rural-Urban
  • Rich-Poor (National)
  • Rich-Poor (Global)
 

GLOBAL PATTERNS