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Political Factors


Political factors that affect global interactions: multi-governmental organisations (MGOs) and free trade zones.

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Political Factors


Political factors that affect global interactions: multi-governmental organisations (MGOs) and free trade zones.

Why does Donald Trump not like the NAFTA free trade agreement? List his main arguments.

 

GOALS

  • removing barriers to free trade in the region

  • increasing the free movement of people, labour, goods, and capital across national borders,

  • reducing the possibility of regional armed conflict

  • adopting regional agreements on policy issues, such as the environment, climate change and migration

 
 

MGO CASE STUDY: NAFTA

What are tarriffs and how do they protect national economies?

Using examples, explain why NAFTA has been both good and bad for the US economy.

 
 

FREE TRADE ZONES CASE STUDY: INCHEON, SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA

What are free trade zones? How do they influence global interactions?

Watch the video below and read pp 555-556. Answer the question above in groups.

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ECONOMIC MIGRATION CONTROLS AND RULES

How does US immigration policy work? In what ways has immigration policy in the US influenced flows of people?

Watch the two videos and read pp 557-558. Answer the question above in groups.

 
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Global Data Flows


Describe and explain the implications of changing patterns and trends in global data flows

Global Data Flows


Describe and explain the implications of changing patterns and trends in global data flows

How have quantities of data flows changed over time and space between 2005 - 2014? Examine the visualisation below and comment on the changes.

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PATTERNS & TRENDS IN DATA FLOWS

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Describe the changes to cross-border data flows between 2005 and 2015. Refer to named regions and data in your answer. 

 
 

DIGITAL GLOBALISATION

Increasing connectivity and exchange of data is transforming globalisation.

The rapidly growing flows of international trade and finance that characterised the 20th century have flattened or declined since 2008. Yet globalisation is not moving into reverse. Instead digital flows are soaring—transmitting information, ideas, and innovation around the world and broadening participation in the global economy.

  • ƒThe world is more interconnected than ever. For the first time in history, emerging economies are counterparts on more than half of global trade flows, and South-South trade is the fastest-growing type of connection.

  • ƒWhile flows of goods and nance have lost momentum, used cross-border bandwidth has grown 45 times larger since 2005. It is projected to grow by another nine times in the next ve years as digital ows of commerce, information, searches, video, communication, and intracompany traf c continue to surge.

ƒ Digital platforms change the economics of doing business across borders, bringing down the cost of international interactions and transactions. They create markets and user communities with global scale, providing businesses with a huge base of potential customers and effective ways to reach them.

ƒ Small businesses worldwide are becoming “micro-multinationals” by using digital platforms such as eBay, Amazon, Facebook, and Alibaba to connect with customers and suppliers in other countries. Even the smallest enterprises can be born global: 86 percent of tech-based startups we surveyed report some type of cross-border activity. The ability of small businesses to reach new markets supports economic growth everywhere.

ƒ Individuals are participating in globalization directly, using digital platforms to learn, nd work, showcase their talent, and build personal networks. Some 900 million people have international connections on social media, and 360 million take part in cross-border e-commerce.

ƒ Over a decade, global ows have raised world GDP by at least 10 percent; this value totaled $7.8 trillion in 2014 alone. Data ows now account for a larger share of this impact than global trade in goods. Global ows generate economic growth primarily by raising productivity, and countries bene t from both in ows and out ows.

ƒ The MGI Connectedness Index offers a comprehensive look at how countries participate in in ows and out ows of goods, services, nance, people, and data. Singapore tops the latest rankings, followed by the Netherlands, the United States, and Germany. China has surged from No. 25 to No. 7.

ƒ Although more nations are participating, global ows remain concentrated among a small set of leading countries. The gaps between the leaders and the rest of the world are closing very slowly, but catch-up growth represents a major opportunity for lagging countries. Some economies could grow by 50 percent or more over the long term by accelerating participation.

ƒ Many companies grew more complex and inef cient as they expanded across borders. But digital technologies can tame complexity and create leaner models for going global. This is a moment for companies to rethink their organizational structures, products, assets, and competitors.

Countries cannot afford to shut themselves off from global ows, but narrow export strategies miss the real value of globalization: the ow of ideas, talent, and inputs that spur innovation and productivity. Digital globalization makes policy choices even more complex. Value chains are shifting, new hubs are emerging, and economic activity is being transformed. This transition creates new openings for countries to carve out pro table roles in the global economy. Those opportunities will favor locations that build the infrastructure, institutions, and business environments that their companies and citizens need to participate fully.

Write a paragraph contrasting 20th and 21st Century globalisation.

 
 
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SHRINKING WORLD


How technological processes influence global interaction

SHRINKING WORLD


How technological processes influence global interaction

How do political, technological and physical processes influence global interactions?

 Isochronic map showing time taken to travel certain distances

Isochronic map showing time taken to travel certain distances

 Francis Galton's isochronic map 1881

Francis Galton's isochronic map 1881

 

KEY CONCEPTS

time-space convergence (n)

This process concerns the changing relationship between time and space, and notably the impacts of transportation improvements on such a relationship. It is closely related to the concept of speed, which indicates how much space can be travelled over a specific amount of time.

friction of distance (n)

As the distance from a place increases, the interactions with that place decrease, usually because the time and costs involved increase with distance.

 

Add these definitions to your notes. Provide a real life example of each one.

 

Watch the video. Identify inventions and explain how they contributed to time-space convergence.

 
 

exam PRACTICE

Explain what is meant by ‘time-space convergence’. (10 marks)

 

Mark scheme

The key idea is that of a “shrinking world” thanks to technological innovation over time. Expect some explanation of the technologies that enable this change and empirical evidence to support it (for example, time taken to circumnavigate the world etc.). This may be shown in diagrammatic form and should be credited.

Other approaches to explanation might include an analysis of the range of flows/global interactions that are enabled by different technologies (and the specific impacts they bring as aspects of the convergence, for example, cultural dilution, McDonaldization or growth of “global village”).

Good answers may recognize the uneven nature of time–space compression (not all people and places experience it to the same extent; some places have “opted-out” of globalization etc.).

At band C, answers may be descriptive of reduced times for travel (provide facts about reducing sailing times etc.) without addressing the concept of time–space convergence very explicitly, or provide a superficial account of the concept but without much real evidence to ground the explanation.

For bands D and E, answers will be focused on both dimensions of space and time (global technologies bring places/people nearer together by reducing the time taken for instantaneous interactions/flows to occur) and the explanation is well supported with examples. Band E answers may additionally show especially adroit handling of the concept or employ very good terminology.

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Ocean Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of ocean transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

Ocean Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of ocean transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

This video will show and name important locations for ocean transport. Can you guess which ones?

 
 

key words

intermodal transportation

transporting freight by using two or more transportation modes. This is made possible by transportation terminals linking different modes of transport e.g road - rail - sea

 

bulk cargo

a commodity that is transported unpacked, in large quantities.

 

break bulk shipping

Break bulk refers to cargo that needs to be individually loaded.

 
 

ocean transport

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changes in speed

containerisation

Containerisation is a system of standardised transport, that uses a common size of steel container to transport goods. These containers can easily be transferred between different modes of transport – container ships to lorries and trains - called intermodal transport. This makes transport and trade of goods cheaper and more efficient.

 
 
 
 
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changes in capacity

Container-carrying capacity has increased 1200% since 1968.

 
 
 
 

task

  1. Read the BBC article above
  2. Make notes on features of the new EEE ship that increase capacity + Panama Canal
  3. Create a document entitled "The Evolution of Container Ships"
  4. Include the ship name, year and capacity and a picture from the Internet.
 

further reading

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Air Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of air transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

Air Transport


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of air transport responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people.

LAX Terminals 4, 5, & 6

 
 
 

changes in speed and capacity

 

Boeing: A Century of Aviation

Supersonic Air Travel & Concorde

History of Commercial Aviation & Airbus

Airbus A380

 

task

  1. Access the resources above
  2. Make notes on the events and their dates that lead to changes in speed and capacity of air transport
  3. Create an illustrated timeline of events 
 
 

SYNTHESIS

Explain how air transport increased its speed and capacity over time. [10 marks]

 
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Communication Infrastructure & Use


Describe and explain global patterns and trends in landline, mobile phone, Internet use and access to broadband 

Communication Infrastructure & Use


Describe and explain global patterns and trends in landline, mobile phone, Internet use and access to broadband 

 Map showing Internet exchanges (2015)

Map showing Internet exchanges (2015)

 

TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGY USE

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DIGITAL DIVIDE

  • Young-Old
  • Rural-Urban
  • Rich-Poor (National)
  • Rich-Poor (Global)
 

GLOBAL PATTERNS