saudi pivot irrigation.jpeg
Arlit uranium mine niger resources.jpg
alaska pipeline.jpg
ski trails whistler tourism.jpeg
saudi pivot irrigation.jpeg

Agriculture in Hot, Arid Areas


Agricultural opportunities and challenges in arid areas, including the distinction between aridity and infertility, irrigation access, salinization risk and land ownership

SCROLL DOWN

Agriculture in Hot, Arid Areas


Agricultural opportunities and challenges in arid areas, including the distinction between aridity and infertility, irrigation access, salinization risk and land ownership

Desert Agriculture, Zagora, Morocco (Source)

Why might this be a good business opportunity? Why might it not be a good idea?

 

keywords

aridity           infertility          irrigation         salinization          leach (v)

 

Challenges

Opportunities

  • Lack of freshwater

  • High temperatures and strong sunlight

  • Low rates of precipitation (>250mm per year)

  • Short rainy season

  • Negative water balance = evaporation > precipitation = high levels of salt in soil

  • Salt in soil draws water out of plants making them wilt

  • Infertile soils b/c low organic content

  • Infertile because very thin soils

  • Lack of clay minerals

  • Salts are not leached from soil

  • High average temperatures and sunlight hours = long growing season

  • Good potential for farming where water is available

  • Oases, desalinisation of water and exotic rivers provide opportunities for settled agriculture

  • Dams collect water which can be used for irrigation

  • Employment opportunities for local communities

 

TASK

  1. Read pp 127 -128

  2. Outline the main opportunities and challenges for farming in hot, arid areas

  3. What is negative water balance and how does this affect farming?

  4. Explain the difference between arid desert soils and infertile desert soils.

 
 

IRRIGATION

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation represents an opportunity to develop agriculture in arid and semi-arid areas, which could lead to FDI (foreign direct investment), economic growth and job creation.

Note the different types of irrigation methods mentioned and their advantages/disadvantages.

 

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION TYPES

While irrigation can present many opportunities for agriculture in hot, arid areas, irrigation must be carefully managed to avoid further environmental and socio-economic consequences.

Drag the statements on the right to the correct type of irrigation

Source

NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF IRRIGATION

Soil salinisation in California resulting from irrigation

Soil salinisation in California resulting from irrigation

  • Reduced groundwater > less water available for local communities

  • Rising water table > increased salinisation > crop failure

  • Disappearance of wetlands > biodiversity loss

  • Reduced river flow > fewer fishing opportunities > more difficult transport

  • More surface water > increase in water-borne diseases like malaria

  • More evaporation > localised changes to weather and rainfall patterns

 

Ways to make farming in arid areas sustainable

Create a poster for a rural area in Senegal that explains how to farm more sustainably. Your poster should explain these points using visuals to ensure a high rate of access in areas with low levels of literacy.

Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation

  • Reduce herd size to limit pressure on vegetation

  • Use solar panels to produce energy, not animal dung

  • Use animal dung to fertilise soils

  • Plant vegetation to feed animals

  • Use effective irrigation (drip and sprinkler irrigation) instead of flood irrigation

  • Put an impermeable layer in irrigation channels to reduce seepage

  • Build check dams and diguettes to collect water

  • Use more salt-tolerant plants

 

exam practice

"The opportunities for agriculture in hot, arid areas greatly outweigh the challenges". Discuss this statement. (10 marks)

Arlit uranium mine niger resources.jpg

Mineral Extraction in Hot, Arid Areas


Examine the opportunities and challenges posed for resource development (mineral extraction and any associated settlement and communications).

Mineral Extraction in Hot, Arid Areas


Examine the opportunities and challenges posed for resource development (mineral extraction and any associated settlement and communications).

Uranium supplies are found all over the world. Why would a mining company choose to base its operations in Niger? With a partner, list all of the reasons why Niger would be a good choice for uranium mining. Remember to fully develop your ideas.

 
 

CASE STUDY: URANIUM MINING IN ARLIT, NIGER

 
Arlit uranium mine, Niger

Arlit uranium mine, Niger

 
Street art showing the colonial history of France in Niger

Street art showing the colonial history of France in Niger

  • France discovered one of the world's largest uranium deposits in the 1960s

  • Today Niger has 2 uranium mines = 7.5% of the world's output

  • 4th largest producer of uranium

  • 2 mining towns: Arlit and Arkokan, are 900km north-east of the capital Niamey

  • Mines are operated by Areva - a French company that owns 70%

  • Local Tuareg groups feel they have not benefitted from the industry

  • Uranium from Niger provides 50% of France's energy supply

 
 

HEALTH IMPACTS

[7 min]

 
 

EXTRA case study: olympic dam mine, australia

 
olympic dam mine australia uranium.jpeg
 
 
 
 

REVIEW

“The opportunities for mineral extraction outweigh the challenges in hot, arid areas.” Discuss this statement. [10 marks]

List the opportunities and challenges in two columns. Develop your points using "so". Add data, place names, examples.

CHALLENGES

OPPORTUNITIES

 
alaska pipeline.jpg

Mineral Extraction in Cold Areas


Human and physical opportunities and challenges for mineral extraction in cold environments, including inaccessibility, permafrost and resource nationalism

Mineral Extraction in Cold Areas


Human and physical opportunities and challenges for mineral extraction in cold environments, including inaccessibility, permafrost and resource nationalism

 
 

case study: mineral extraction in THE ARCTIC

 
 

CASE STUDY: RESOURCE NATIONALISM IN GREENLAND

Greenland is an ice-covered autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark. As its ice sheet melts due to global warming, vast mineral resources such as uranium and rare-earth metals are being uncovered.

 
 
 
 

In groups, summarise the social, economic, environmental and political (SEEP) opportunities and challenges for resource extraction in cold environments.

 

EXAM PRACTICE

“The opportunities for mineral extraction in cold environments far outweigh the challenges” Discuss this statement with reference to named examples. [10 marks]

ski trails whistler tourism.jpeg

Tourism in Extreme Environments


Examine the opportunities and challenges for tourism in extreme environments

Tourism in Extreme Environments


Examine the opportunities and challenges for tourism in extreme environments

Extreme environments have low population densities and are often remote and relatively inaccessible. Why might this make them good tourism destinations?

Hot, arid areas

Cold, high areas

 

Extreme environments have many primary tourist resources that are attractive to tourism e.g sunshine hours, views, local culture. However, carrying capacities in these fragile environments are low and can be quickly exceeded, leading to environmental damage. This poses challenges for developing sustainable tourism models for extreme environments.

Overview

 
 

Task

Create a presentation outlining a business opportunity for tourism in either a hot, arid area or a cold, high mountain area.

You should:

  1. Explain why the extreme environment has potential and risks for tourism development, providing named examples

  2. Examine the opportunities for tourism focusing on primary tourist resources

  3. Explain the challenges associated with tourism in extreme environments, making links to carrying capacity

  4. Outline methods of managing possible risks to the tourism industry

 
 
 
 

How have local communities in Nepal benefitted from tourism? What problems do they face?

 
 
 

TOURISM IN HOT, ARID AREAS

CASE STUDY: POTENTIAL FOR TOURISM IN SOUTH SUDAN

 
 
 

REVIEW

“The opportunites for tourism in extreme environments far outweigh the challenges”. Discuss this statement with reference to two different, named environments. [10 marks]