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Defining Globalisation


Be able to define and explain globalisation.

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Defining Globalisation


Be able to define and explain globalisation.

Globalisation is the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology.
— IMF

LEARN

  1. Write the full definition in the middle of a page of A4 paper.
  2. Highlight and then illustrate the main points in bold.
  3. Practice learning the definition and test a neighbour.
 
 

Note key events / concepts / ideas.

 
 

Globalisation & neo-liberalism

 
 

neoliberalism

This is the philosophy that underpins and drives economic globalisation. At its core is a belief in the free market and minimum barriers to the flow of goods, services and capital. It is an extension of the traditional liberal philosophy, which argues for a separation of politics and economics and that markets should be “free” from interference of government. This approach is based on four principles:

Economic growth is paramount: corporations and their agents need to be free to pursue whatever gives them an economic advantage and, in consequence, internal and global markets must be free to operate with little government constraint or regulation.

Free trade benefits all nations - rich or poor - because every nation has a comparative advantage.

Government spending creates inefficiency and waste: although most neo-liberals agree that not all public expenditure is wasteful, many argue that it can be reduced.

In the distribution of economic goods, individual responsibility replaces the concepts of public goods and community.

There are four pillars to the neoliberal approach all of which involve liberalisation (the reduction of rules and restrictions): capital account liberalisation, trade liberalisation, domestic liberalisation, and privatisation.

 
 

is the world really shrinking?

  1. Listen to the lecture.
  2. Note key words and ideas in your notes.
  3. Research definitions and examples of these points.
 

reading

  1. Read and make notes on pp 1-6 Global Interactions book. (Guinness)
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Global Participation


Describe and evaluate the KOF index as a measure of global interaction.

Describe how the globalization index may be represented spatially.

Global Participation


Describe and evaluate the KOF index as a measure of global interaction.

Describe how the globalization index may be represented spatially.

HOW GLOBALIsED IS SWITZERLAND?

Switzerland had the most multi-cultural team out of the 32 that participated in the 2014 Brazil World Cup.

Switzerland had the most multi-cultural team out of the 32 that participated in the 2014 Brazil World Cup.

 

MEASURING GLOBALIsATION

  • flows of people
  • flows of information
  • flows of ideas
  • flows of capital
  • flows of goods

How could you measure and provide data for the following aspects of globalization? Write your ideas into your notes.

If you had to give a higher weighting to these figures, which would you say are more important as measurements of globalisation?

 

KOF INDEX OF GLOBALIsATION

 

TASK

  1. Make notes on the above presentation.
  2. Read pp 7-12 HL Book (Guinness).
  3. Make detailed notes on the reading.
 

calculating the kof index

  1. Download and read the document
  2. Highlight information relating to how the KOF index is calculated

 

 
 

SPATIAL PATTERNS

 

SWITZERLAND AND THE KOF INDEX

Read the following article about Switzerland's recent demotion from the top ten most globalized countries.

Export this document to Notability and highlight reasons for Switzerland's change.

Write a sentence to describe this article.

Add a bullet point summary to your notes using these three titles:

  1. Economic Globalization
  2. Social Globalization
  3. Political Globalization
 

EXAM QUESTION

Use the essay planner to plan a response to the following question:

Describe how one prominent index measures global interaction. (10 marks)

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Global Core and Periphery


Discuss the spatial pattern of global interactions through the mapping of core areas at the focus of interaction (network hubs/nodes), the peripheries and areas relatively unaffected by these interactions.

Global Core and Periphery


Discuss the spatial pattern of global interactions through the mapping of core areas at the focus of interaction (network hubs/nodes), the peripheries and areas relatively unaffected by these interactions.

  1. Name three places that show that this map is out of date when discussing global divisions.
 

core and periphery

The location of every Internet connected device in the world.

 
 
International flights (Source)

International flights (Source)

 
 

hubs and nodes

 
 
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task

  1. Add the definitions above to your notes
  2. Read pp 14-16 HL Book as a class
  3. Copy Fig. 2 p15 in your notes
 
 

global cities

Distribution of Ga-WC World Cities (2010 data). Source: Wikipedia

Distribution of Ga-WC World Cities (2010 data). Source: Wikipedia

  1. Describe the distribution of world cities. Refer to the general pattern, specifics and exceptions. Specify regions of continents using compass words.
 
  1. Click, read and summarise the article above in one paragraph.
 

mapping of core areas at the focus of interaction

task

  1. Access the GATW page and complete the mapping activities.
 
 

practice exam question

Explain how global core areas (hubs) can be distinguished from peripheral areas [10 marks].

 

mark scheme

Candidates would be expected to define “global core areas/hubs” as significant places that provide a focal point for global flows and activities. They are places where major diaspora groups may be found or may be identified as source regions either for contemporary cultural diffusion (for example, Seattle’s computer industries) or economic imperialism (for example, Washington). The scale at which hubs can be identified is open to interpretation. Small cities like Cambridge (UK) are hubs, but so too are megacities such as Sao Paulo and small states including Monaco and Luxemburg.

Arguably, entire nations such as Singapore and South Korea could be described as hubs at which point the term hub is almost synonymous with “core” in world systems analysis. But an appropriate “core and periphery” analysis in 2011 should not simply echo 1970s World Systems theory. Responses that do not acknowledge this and do not examine more than a simple “MEDC–LEDC” worldview (for example, by at least acknowledging a semi-periphery of emerging economies/NICs) should not progress beyond band C. (Within bands D and E, a good explanation of a fuller range of characteristics could compensate for a more limited description of the hub/periphery pattern.)

At bands D and E, answers need to be focused on how such places can be distinguished from other places and should not just assert that they exist. People and organizations in hubs will display high levels of global participation which could be measured using KOF or AT Kearney indices. They may also host major diasporas or can be mapped as source regions for key “globalized” cultural traits including language (such as English or Spanish). Mapping the head offices of large TNCs is another route of inquiry. Other routes could include a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres, airports, ports, internet bandwidth availability, reliance on agriculture.

Other approaches may be equally valid.

examiner report

This question produced a disappointing set of responses on the whole. Too many candidates merely asserted, wrongly, that a simplistic MEDC–LEDC divide still exists. There was next to no acknowledgment of globally important hubs such as Mumbai or Sao Paulo or other key settlements in emerging economies (or peripheral "LEDCs" as they were portrayed in most accounts, despite the BRIC group’s key role in driving global GDP growth today). Overall, the cohort showed poor understanding of contemporary economic geography and the global pattern of hub regions.

The use of the word "hub" in the guide, and in this question, ought to be a clear signal to centres that the core–periphery literature dating from the 1970s is not, in itself, sufficient background reading for the current global interactions course. Candidates who relied exclusively on this outdated framework found themselves erroneously describing a global system within which a global periphery, that includes China and India, continues to provide raw materials for the manufacturing firms found in developed countries. Examiners were left wondering whether, in other contexts, such candidates would be able to explain the rise of the Asian tigers and BRIC economies, or the de-industrialization of the old global core.

Thus a widespread lack of familiarity with the concept of emerging economies as new global hubs (which must surely come from examining the latest KOF or Kearney indices) was seen. There was little mention of the activities of the world’s financial hubs (which have triggered the global economic turndown that now surrounds us).

The concept of scale was clearly the biggest problem. There was a lack of comprehension that world cities in middle-income and low-income nations can nonetheless be global hubs. Effective teaching about globalization and global interactions needs to move beyond the nation state as the only frame of reference for patterns of wealth and connectivity.

mobile internet coverage / interactive map