1. Read pp 92-95 Guinness Patterns and Change
  2. What is the Gini coefficient?
  3. Describe the global variation in the Gini coefficient shown in Fig.1 p 92
  4. How has the Gini coefficient changed over time for two named countries? (Fig.2 p 93)
  5. What were the four main findings of the report Growing Unequal (p93)





Global Distribution of Gini Coefficient (2008)

The Gini coefficient (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. 


lorenz curve and gini coefficient


cumulative causation (gunnar myrdal / 1957)


disparities resulting from different factors 


Disparities in Health in the UK

  • Health gap between rich and poor is growing
  • Those in the poorest areas have highest risk of premature death, infant death.
  • Residents of north 20% more likely to die before age 75 compared to south.

disparity in new york


poverty and obesity in the USA





 Income Inequality in the US (Gini Coefficient)

Income Inequality in the US (Gini Coefficient)






causes - disparities and inequities group task

Guinness // 95-103

  1. Create a short presentation summarising the findings from your section.

  2. Include: bullet point summaries of information, data, images/maps/graphs.
  3. Present in 5 mins.


  • Ethnicity
  • Residence
  • Parental Education
  • Income
  • Employment (Formal and Informal)
  • Land Ownership
  • Brazil Case Study

ethnic disparity in washington d.c.




how economic inequality harms societies



This question focuses specifically on the way in which political borders become less significant with the free movement of people, goods, capital and ideas in a multi-governmental organisation such as the EU. Answers must therefore focus on this aspect and address issues that deal specifically with the diminishing effectiveness of political borders.

It is likely that answers will focus on the removal of all trade barriers, customs and travel restrictions to all EU citizens. This means that goods, people and labour, capital and ideas can flow freely around the 27 members of the European Union without any form of control. This renders political boundaries and national borders completely redundant in this respect.

Although they continue to demarcate the spatial extent of sovereign territory and therefore the limits of national policy, laws and society, their physical location are purely symbolic to these kinds of flows. The Schengen Agreement coordinates security intelligence and action to the extent that police forces in one member state may continue their pursuit of suspected criminals across political borders where they would previously have to stop.

The agreement also imposes a common immigration policy whereby the immigration status of an individual in one member state enjoys the same status in another and can therefore cross internal political borders freely.

The strongest answers are likely to consider the increased effectiveness of the EU’s external borders whereby security and immigration checks are increased under the terms of the Schengen Agreement. These external borders also become more significant in the sense that goods, people and capital are subject to much stronger trade and travel restrictions through the use of tariffs, quotas and passport checks and visa requirements.