Can't we simply remove political borders? What would be the advantages and disadvantages of doing this?


key concept

Fewer political borders  -  flow of goods, capital, labour, ideas  -  the EU


the eu

  1. Research and note the goals of the EU (social, economic and political).
  2. Create a timeline of significant EU treaties, briefly describing what each agreement was about:
    • Treaty of Paris (1951)
    • Treaty of Rome (1957)
    • Merger Treaty (1965)
    • Schengen Agreement (1985)
    • Single European Act (1986)
    • Maastricht Treaty (1992)
    • Amsterdam Treaty (1997)
    • Treaty of Lisbon (2007)

switzerland and the eu


the schengen treaty (1985)



  1. Write a summary of the Schengen Treaty and name 3 European countries not a part of it.
  2. Read pp 181-188 HL Book
  3. Draw Fig. 1 and Fig. 5
  4. Summarise Fig. 3
  5. Make notes on how the EU has impacted the flow of goods, capital, labour and ideas.


  1. Scan the text. Highlight the years and their events.
  2. Read the article. Highlight key points.
  3. What are the three strands to the sovereignty argument?

exam practice

Explain how one multi-governmental organization has led to a loss of sovereignty. [10 marks]


mark scheme

Candidates would be expected to define their chosen multi-governmental organization as a grouping of nations, providing as their example the EU, NAFTA, MERCOSUR, ASEAN or others.

The example chosen will influence the answer, as some MGOs are merely free trade areas while others have a common external tariff, in the case of the EU a common market and fuller economic union with shared currency and freedom of movement for workers. Thus an answer based around the EU will most likely assert that sovereignty has indeed been lost, while one based around NAFTA may address the phrase “loss of sovereignty” more reservedly.

Accept a wide interpretation of MGO to include the IMF, UN, G20, NATO etc. However, such answers may be self-limiting and unlikely to gain the higher bands as it may be hard to display a loss of sovereignty.

Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.