stopp ja.jpg
anti globalization.jpg
stopp ja.jpg


Examine the resurgence of nationalism in one country as it attempts to retain control of its resources and culture.



Examine the resurgence of nationalism in one country as it attempts to retain control of its resources and culture.


  1. an extreme form of patriotism marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries.

  2. advocacy of political independence for a particular country.
Popular vote in favour of the main nationalist party by European country (Source)

Popular vote in favour of the main nationalist party by European country (Source)


Reasons for rising nationalism in Europe since 2010:

  • austerity measures
  • mass immigration
  • links to fascist/Nazi ideology
  • threats from Islam
  • threats to national identity by ethnic minorities
  • threat to national culture as a result of multi-culturalism

What do these political campaigns tell you about the feelings of certain people in Switzerland?


EUROPEAN CONTEXT: The right rises again in Europe

Throughout Europe, extremist right-wing parties have been on the rise and radical ideas are gaining traction.

Poster for the Swiss People's Party.

Support for right-wing, anti-immigrant, and anti-EU fringe parties is increasing in Europe. In many countries on the old continent, extremist parties have been on the rise and radical ideas are gaining traction.

In the Netherlands, where liberalism and tolerance have historically been embraced like in no other country, Geert Wilders and his “Freedom Party” have been propagating an anti-immigrant agenda specifically aimed at Muslims. The party came in third in the Dutch parliamentary election in 2010 and effectively caused the government to collapse in 2012 by withdrawing its support from the ruling coalition.

The Danish government, pressured by the far-right Danish People’s Party, reintroduced border controls a few years back, a concept that directly violates the EU’s principle of free movement.

In a similar move, the Swiss People’s Party led the historically tolerant country to introduce quotas on immigration after a controversial referendum passed by a slim margin this past February. A few years back, the same Swiss populist movement introduced a construction ban on new minarets, the traditional Islamic prayer towers that loom over mosques.

In France, Marine Le Pen’s National Front performed exceptionally well in municipal elections last March, foreshadowing a repeat performance in the European Parliament elections. A strong showing would enable it to coalesce with likeminded nationalist parties like the Austrian Freedom Party, the Belgian Vlaams Belang, the Italian Northern League, and the Swedish Democrats, among others, to make up the strongest nationalist coalition this relatively young legislative institution has seen thus far.



CASE STUDY: nationalism in switzerland


  • As of 2014, 23.4% of Switzerland's population are foreigners (Germany: 9%).
  • The net immigration is 80,000 people per year, 1% of the total population (three times more than e.g. in Germany, four times more than in the U.S.).
  • Every year 30,000 – 40,000 receive Swiss nationality (this represents a per capita rate of about three times that of both Germany and the United States). 
  • According to the European Commission about 1 million EU citizens live in Switzerland and another 230,000 cross the border daily for work, while 430,000 Swiss live in the EU. (Source)

retaining control of culture



results of the 2009 minaret referendum


minaret ban three years on


retaining control of resources

referendum against mass immigration 2014


why swiss surburbia voted for immigration curbs

How did opinions change? By how much? What were the reasons for the change in opinion? 


effects of immigration referendum in switzerland

The referendum against the free movement of workers in 2014 led to Switzerland being removed from the European Horizon 2020 scietific funding programme as well as the European university exchange programme, Erasmus.



The Swiss People's Party also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre (French: Union démocratique du centre, UDC), is a national conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Toni Brunner, but spearheaded by Christoph Blocher, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, with 54 members of the National Council and 5 of the Council of States.



  1. Research the Swiss People's Party.
  2. Create an overview and history of the party and its popularity in Switzerland.
  3. Describe the UDCs key political initiatives.

practice exam question

Analyse the relationship between globalisation and the resurgence of nationalism in one country you have studied. (10 marks)

anti globalization.jpg

Anti Globalisation Movements

Discuss anti-globalisation movements

Anti Globalisation Movements

Discuss anti-globalisation movements

Why would some groups of people be against globalisation and the organisations that promote globalisation e.g. WTO?


the world trade organisation



  1. Summarise the what, who, when, how and why of anti-globalization from the article above.
  2. Read the article above
  3. Which communities/groups associate themselves with this movement?
  4. What are the targets of anti-globalization movements?
  5. How did the anti-globalization movement begin?


The WTO riots, Seattle, US, 1999


the second age of globalisation is over?

  1. Read and highlight key quotes from the article above
  2. Include these quotes in the essay below


"Global interactions have made the world a richer place but not a fairer place." (15 points)

Mark scheme


Global participation has increased over time and core areas [Guide 3] have clearly expanded since the days of the Brandt Report. Developing peripheries [Guide 3] are places where a large emerging middle class can be found apparent, for example, NICs/BRICs. This economic fact does not need to be contested/debated. However, it could be by suggesting the 2008 credit crunch caused the expansion of world wealth to temporarily halt/reverse. It is also possible to critique other notions of “wealth”, such as cultural or ecological wealth, although, again, this is not a requirement.


This point does need to be debated, as it is controversial. Hundreds of millions have been lifted out of poverty in China although India is still a very divided society. It can be argued that global financial flows [Guide 3] have redistributed money on a regional level as world GDP has risen, with Asia, Brazil and some African (“African lion”) states clearly prospering at the aggregate level of GDP. But the benefits are still very uneven. Numbers in poverty in Saharan Africa have doubled over 30 years. Some financial flows (TNC profits, mining revenues etc.) are re-directed at core regions [Guide 3]. Good answers may debate the difficulties in finding a universally accessible definition of “fair” (or “wealth” for that matter).

There are also “unfair” losses for the environment in many places (an account of transboundary pollution could be employed here) and for local cultures as languages are lost etc. There are many possible approaches and these should be assessed on their merits.

To access band D, the answers should be well balanced. For band E, there should be an evidenced conclusion that has critically interrogated the idea of “fairness” with respect to the changing distribution of the growing total amount of global wealth.

examiner report

Less confident candidates sometimes chose to simply agree that the world is indeed an unfair place and did not, or could not, offer a counter-argument, whereas the strongest candidates knew plenty about the pros and cons of the actions and impacts of the IMF, the World Bank and SAPs (from strand 3 of the guide) and could therefore mount a proper assessment of how the opening up to global interactions of China and India (among others) had impacted on aggregate levels of wealth as well as on distributions (at varying geographical scales). The best answers provided strong evidence to support their arguments and could offer a wide interpretation of "fair" that allowed them to build a wider synthesis of ideas.


Attempts to control migration

Discuss the attempts to control migration into one country.

Attempts to control migration

Discuss the attempts to control migration into one country.

Left: San Diego area, USA. Right: Tijuana, Mexico.


usa territorial growth


background reading


percentage foreign born by state [animated gif]




history of us immigration and policy


the line in the sand: the consequences of illegal immigration into the us


the minuteman project

The Minuteman Project is an activist organisation started in April 2005 by a group of private individuals in the United States to monitor the United States – Mexico border's flow of illegal immigrants. Co-founded by Jim Gilchrist, the name derives from the Minutemen, militiamen who fought in the American Revolution.


increased government spending on us border



  1. Read pp 205 - 206
  2. Draw a timeline of US Immigration Policy
  3. Annote with facts and data about US immigration. llustrate with pictures.