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Population Pyramids


Identify and give reasons for (and implications of) different types of population structure as shown by population pyramids of countries at different levels of development

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Population Pyramids


Identify and give reasons for (and implications of) different types of population structure as shown by population pyramids of countries at different levels of development

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Ageing Populations


Describe the consequences (benefits and problems) of ageing populations

Ageing Populations


Describe the consequences (benefits and problems) of ageing populations

Japan's population ageing.

  1. Calculate the percentage of people aged 65+
  2. Using the figure for total population, calculate the total number of people aged 65+
 
 

DEPENDENCY RATIO

The dependency ratio is an age-population ratio of those typically not in the labour force (the dependent part ages 0 to 14 and 65+) and those typically in the labor force (the productive part ages 15 to 64). It is used to measure the pressure on productive population.

How are total, child and old-age dependency ratios similar and different?

 

RUSSIA

Population: 142,257,519 (2017)

0-14 years: male 12,509,563 / female 11,843,254
15-64 years: male 46,952,577 / female 50,640,811
65 years and over: male 6,352,557 / female 13,958,757

SWITZERLAND

Population: 8,236,303 (2017)

0-14 years: male 642,814 / female 605,689
15-64 years: male 2,761,804 / female 2,731,288
65 years and over: male 658,673 / female 836,035

Calculate the total age dependency ratios for Switzerland and Russia.

Calculate the old-age dependency ratio for Switzerland and Russia.

 
 

EFFECTS OF A HIGH DEPENDENCY RATIO

Explain four impacts of a high dependency ratio.

  1. Lower Tax Revenues - retired people pay lower income tax. Therefore, the working age population has a greater responsibility to pay tax.
  2. Higher Government Spending - the government is committed to paying a state pension and related benefits such as a minimum income guarantee. There are also greater demands for indirect spending on retired people. People over 65 are more likely to require treatment by the NHS. Therefore, there are greater demands placed on government spending by a rise in the dependency ratio.
  3. Higher tax rates - a declining working population pay more taxes as a result of the pressures on government finances. This could create disincentives to work and reduce disposable income. The government may be forced to collect more revenue from indirect taxes or wealth taxes.
  4. Lower pension funds - because of the rising percentage of retired people, pension funds are having to stretch further than before. Many pension funds haven’t planned for the rapid rise in the dependency ratio. Combined with the credit crisis and low interest rates, the average income retired people can expect has fallen.
  5. Pressure to raise retirement age - because of the increased cost of pensions there is pressure to raise the retirement age in both the private sector and public sector. Tesco’s recently announced it will be the first private firm in the UK to raise its pension age to 67. This is an attempt to reign in the costs and meet the pension shortfall they currently have.
  6. Inequality - raising the state pension age will have different effects. Some people with a substantial private pension will not really be affected. They can still choose to retire when they want. However, others with no or minimal state pension will have to work longer.
 

CASE STUDY: JAPAN'S AGEING, DEPENDENT POPULATION

 
 

What challenges will Japan face as its population ages?

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Youthful Populations


Examine the impacts of youthful populations

Youthful Populations


Examine the impacts of youthful populations

 
 
 Click to open

Click to open

 
 

the impacts (+&-) of Cambodia's youthful population

 
 
 

TASK

  1. Read pp 14-15 of the document above
  2. Describe the population structure of Cambodia (4 marks)
  3. Describe the socio-economic impacts of Cambodia's youthful population (6 marks)
 
 
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Case Study: Cambodia


Examine the impacts of a youthful population structure

Case Study: Cambodia


Examine the impacts of a youthful population structure

 
 
 Click to open

Click to open

 
 

the impacts (+&-) of Cambodia's youthful population

 
 
 

TASK

  1. Read pp 14-15 of the document above
  2. Describe the population structure of Cambodia (4 marks)
  3. Explain the socio-economic impacts of Cambodia's youthful population (6 marks)
 
 

garment industry in cambodia

Cambodia makes clothes for large transnational companies such as H&M and Gap.

The garment industry contributes $5.5 billion to the national economy - that's around one third of the country's GDP (all money earned from the production of goods and services).

However, conditions for workers are often very difficult, with employees working long hours for less than $3 per day. Workers have few rights and can struggle to feed their families.

The large companies which sell these clothes, that you and I buy, make huge profits from this industry. In 2014 H&M made 2,000,000,000 US$ profit.

TASK: Watch the above documentary and note the main points.