theories for reducing the development gap
- Read about the three theories on 122-123 Patterns and Change book
- Create a simple poster explaining the theory
- Present this to the class
- Complete the summary grid
trade and development
Regional Trade Blocs
A regional trading bloc is a group of countries within a geographical region that protect themselves from imports from non-members. Trading blocs are a form of economic integration, and increasingly shape the pattern of world trade. There are several types of trading bloc:
Preferential Trade Area
Preferential Trade Areas (PTAs) exist when countries within a geographical region agree to reduce or eliminate tariff barriers on selected goods imported from other members of the area. This is often the first small step towards the creation of a trading bloc.
Free Trade Area
Free Trade Areas (FTAs) are created when two or more countries in a region agree to reduce or eliminate barriers to trade on all goods coming from other members.
A customs union involves the removal of tariff barriers between members, plus the acceptance of a common (unified) external tariff against non-members. This means that members may negotiate as a single bloc with 3rd parties, such as with other trading blocs, or with the WTO.
A ‘common market’ (or single market) is the first significant step towards full economic integration, and occurs when member countries trade freely in all economic resources – not just tangible goods. This means that all barriers to trade in goods, services, capital, and labour are removed. In addition, as well as removing tariffs, non-tariff barriers are also reduced and eliminated. For a common market to be successful there must also be a significant level of harmonisation of micro-economic policies, and common rules regarding monopoly power and other anti-competitive practices. There may also be common policies affecting key industries, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) of the European Single Market (ESM).
The main disadvantages of trading blocs
Loss of benefits
The benefits of free trade between countries in different blocs is lost.
Distortion of trade
Trading blocs are likely to distort world trade, and reduce the beneficial effects of specialisation and the exploitation of comparative advantage.
Inefficiencies and trade diversion
Inefficient producers within the bloc can be protected from more efficient ones outside the bloc. For example, inefficient European farmers may be protected from low-cost imports from developing countries. Trade diversion arises when trade is diverted away from efficient producers who are based outside the trading area.
The development of one regional trading bloc is likely to stimulate the development of others. This can lead to trade disputes, such as those between the EU and NAFTA, including the recent Boeing (US)/Airbus (EU) dispute. The EU and US have a long history of trade disputes, including the dispute over US steel tariffs, which were declared illegal by the WTO in 2005. In addition, there are the so-called beef wars with the US applying £60m tariffs on EU beef in response to the EU’s ban on US beef treated with hormones; and complaints to the WTO of each other’s generous agricultural support.
During the 1970s many former UK colonies formed their own trading blocs in reaction to the UK joining the European common market.
The main advantages for members
Free trade within the bloc
Knowing that they have free access to each other's markets, members are encouraged to specialise. This means that, at the regional level, there is a wider application of the principle of comparative advantage.
Market access and trade creation
Easier access to each other’s markets means that trade between members is likely to increase. Trade creation exists when free trade enables high cost domestic producers to be replaced by lower cost, and more efficient imports. Because low cost imports lead to lower priced imports, there is a 'consumption effect', with increased demand resulting from lower prices.
Economies of scale
Producers can benefit from the application of scale economies, which will lead to lower costs and lower prices for consumers.
Jobs may be created as a consequence of increased trade between member economies.
Firms inside the bloc are protected from cheaper imports from outside, such as the protection of the EU shoe industry from cheap imports from China and Vietnam.
- Read 124-130
- Answer q 1-6 p 130
CASE STUDY: resource nationalisation in bolivia
Bolivia is an example of a country that is challenging the free market philosophy. It introduced a resource nationalisation policy in 2006.
CASE STUDY EXAMPLES
- Complete activities on GATW
remittances vs FDI & AID