river bed yangtze.jpg
graphic world mountains and rivers.jpg
river.jpg
niagra waterfall river water.jpg
floods.jpg
yellow river huang he china.jpg
pearl river delta.jpg
river bed yangtze.jpg

Drainage Basins


Explain the main hydrological characteristics and processes which operate within rivers and drainage basins

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Drainage Basins


Explain the main hydrological characteristics and processes which operate within rivers and drainage basins

How many European rivers can you name?

 
 
 
A drainage basin is an area within which water supplied by precipitation is transferred to the ocean, a lake or larger stream. It includes all the area that is drained by a river and its tributaries.
— Cambridge IGCSE Geography

TASK: Write the definition of a drainage basin in your notes

 
 

TASK: Watch the video and note the keywords and their definitions

 
 

Definitions

  1. Research the definitions of the following words.
  2. Draw a simple version of the drainage basin diagram
  3. Annotate the picture with labels to show:
  • drainage basin
  • tributary
  • confluence
  • watershed

 

 
 

drainage basin processes

TASK

  1. Complete the gap fill using the words from the diagram above
  2. Stick the completed gap fill into your notes
  3. Write a pragraph describing two different ways that water passes through the drainage basin system. Refer to the keywords throughout.
graphic world mountains and rivers.jpg

River Profile


Describe and explain the long profile and shape in cross section

River Profile


Describe and explain the long profile and shape in cross section

Imagine you are travelling down a river, from the source in the mountains to the mouth at the sea. How would the landscape change along the way? Describe this with a neighbour.

 
 

LONG PROFILE OF RIVER

  1. Draw a simple long profile of a river on A3 paper
  2. Label your diagram with information from the resources below
  3. Add diagrams / sketches to your long profile
 

RESOURCES

BRADSHAW model

 
 

CHANNEL SHAPE & ROUGHNESS

Read pp 96-97 IGCSE book

Make notes on:

  • Channel Shape
  • Channel Roughness

Answer questions 1 & 2 p97

river.jpg

River Processes


Demonstrate an understanding of processes of erosion, transport and deposition.

Explain why and where in a river’s course deposition takes place.

River Processes


Demonstrate an understanding of processes of erosion, transport and deposition.

Explain why and where in a river’s course deposition takes place.

Many processes occur in rivers. Can you name any?

river.jpg
 
 

A river removes material from the sides (banks) and bottom (bed) of the river channel. This is called erosion

The boulders, pebbles, sand, silt and mud are carried downstream. This is called transportation. The material being transported is called the load.

When the river loses energy it deposits material on the river bed. The largest material (boulders) are deposited first.

 

There are many factors affecting erosion. These include:

  • load – the heavier and sharper the load the greater the potential for erosion

  • velocity and discharge – the greater the velocity and discharge the greater the potential for erosion

  • gradient – increased gradient increases the rate of erosion

  • geology – soft, unconsolidated rocks, such as sand and gravel, are easily eroded

  • pH – rates of solution are increased when the water is more acidic

  • human impact – deforestation, dams and bridges interfere with the natural fl ow of a river and frequently end up increasing the rate of erosion.

TASK: Read the text above and make detailed notes in your notebook

 

RIVER TRANSPORT PROCESSES

RIVER EROSION PROCESSES

TASK: Watch the two videos above. Draw a labelled diagram with definitions for the words and a description of the processes.

 
 

EXAM PRACTICE

Name and explain 3 ways in which a river transports its load (2 + 2 + 2 marks)

Explain how one named process of erosion may be stronger or weaker depending on river conditions (3 marks)

niagra waterfall river water.jpg

River Landforms


Describe and explain the landforms associated with river processes

River Landforms


Describe and explain the landforms associated with river processes

why do rivers curve?

 

River Landforms

Create a presentation describing and explaining the following landforms:

  1. Read pp 103-108 course book

  2. Access the resources below by clicking on the words

  3. Create a presentation explaining how the landforms are created. Include:

    • A description of the landform (what it is and what it looks like)

    • An explanation of how it is made

    • A picture/diagram to support your text

  4. Remember to include river processes keywords from last lesson in your explanation

 
 
 

TEST YOURSELF

 
floods.jpg

River Hazards


Examine the causes and effects of the 2005 flood in Switzerland

River Hazards


Examine the causes and effects of the 2005 flood in Switzerland

Think: what hazards and opportunities are associated with rivers?

Pair: combine your ideas and add them to a list in your book

Share: add your ideas to the board

 
 

why is switzerland at risk from flooding?

 The “Wasserschloss” (the confluence of the rivers Aare, Reuss and Limmat in the Canton of Aargau) during the flood of August 2007.

The “Wasserschloss” (the confluence of the rivers Aare, Reuss and Limmat in the Canton of Aargau) during the flood of August 2007.

PHYSICAL REASONS

  • Heavy rainfall

  • Long periods of rain

  • Saturated ground > less infiltration > more surface runoff

  • High snow line > precipitation doesn't store as snow

  • Snowmelt

  • Steep slopes

  • Impermeable rock

HUMAN REASONS

  • Deforestation in ski areas

  • Soil compaction on ski slopes

  • Lack of coordination between environmental agencies

  • Insufficient forecasting and warning

  • Urbanisation of rural areas

  • Bridge construction collecting debris blocking river

 
 

CASE STUDY: SWISS FLOODS 2005

 Up to 200mm of rainfall was received on the northern side of the Alps in 24hrs on the 22nd August, 2005. [ Source ]

Up to 200mm of rainfall was received on the northern side of the Alps in 24hrs on the 22nd August, 2005. [Source]

The Aare River Basin, northern Switzerland.

  1. Read p3. Write a paragraph summarising the floods in 2005

  2. Open the PDF in a PDF viewer

  3. Highlight causes and effects using two different colours

  4. Note causes and effects to two columns in your notebook

 

REVIEW

With reference to a named example, examine the causes of a river flood (7 marks)

yellow river huang he china.jpg

Flood Plain Opportunities


Describe the opportunities and challenges of living on the Huang He river floodplain

Flood Plain Opportunities


Describe the opportunities and challenges of living on the Huang He river floodplain

Floodplains are areas near to rivers that flood regularly. Why do so many people choose to live on or near floodplains?

 
huang he map.gif

TASK 1

Draw a simple sketch map of the Huang He river

Research and note 5 things about the Huang He

 
 

TASK 2

Watch the clip about the Yellow River and add to your notes

 
 

TASK 3

Research the Yellow River.

Create a digital case study file which includes:

  • details about the river (location, length etc)

  • quality maps and images

  • a summary of opportunities for people living near this river (e.g. farming, tourism, hydroelectric power etc.)

  • a summary of the major challenges (e.g. flooding, water pollution etc)

  • a list of sources

Links:

Environmental Problems

Challenges of the Yellow River

pearl river delta.jpg

Pearl River Delta


Examine the environmental impacts of economic growth in the Pearl River Delta 

Pearl River Delta


Examine the environmental impacts of economic growth in the Pearl River Delta 

 
 

CONTEXT

 

In 2015, the Pearl River Delta became the world's largest urban area. Tokyo is the second largest.

The Pearl river drains into the South China Sea. Honk Kong is to the East and Macau to the West.

There are a many industrial and manufacturing cities in the region, including Guangzhou and Shenzen.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

environmental problems

  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution 
  • Deforestation
 
 

TASK

Create a case study summary document called "Environmental Problems in the Pearl River Delta".

Choose how you want to show this (poster, notes, storyboard, video, powerpoint etc)

Include:

  • Description of location of Pearl river delta and map
  • The main causes of pollution in the PRD
  • A summary of the main measures used to tackle the problem