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Tourism Management in Urban Areas


Describe the distribution and location of primary and secondary tourist resources in Venice, Italy.

Discuss the strategies designed to manage tourist demands, maximize capacity and minimize conflicts between local residents and visitors and avoid environmental damage.

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Tourism Management in Urban Areas


Describe the distribution and location of primary and secondary tourist resources in Venice, Italy.

Discuss the strategies designed to manage tourist demands, maximize capacity and minimize conflicts between local residents and visitors and avoid environmental damage.

 

Secondary tourist/recreational resources

Facilities that have been built specifically for tourism and leisure e.g. accommodation, catering, entertainment and shopping. 

Primary tourist/recreational resources

The pre-existing attractions for tourism or recreation (that is, those not built specifically for the purpose), including climate, scenery, wildlife, indigenous people, cultural and heritage sites.

 

 
 

venice & tourism

 
  1. Draw a sketch map showing the location of Venice in Italy
  2. Describe the location of Venice
  3. Research facts about tourism in Venice and create a factfile
 

KEY POINTS

  • Venice population: 55,000. Daily visitors: 50,000

  • Annual carrying capacity for tourism in Venice: 11 million people

  • Annual tourism numbers: 22 million (Of whom only 4 million stay one night or more)

  • Only 2 million visit cultural attractions such as galleries or museums

  • During ten days of the year, daily visits reach 100,000. It is not uncommon to have 200,000 visitors in one day.

  • Visitors exceed the carrying capacity for two thirds of the year.

Source

 
 
 

distribution of primary and secondary tourist resources

  1. Using Tripadvisor (map view), research and plot the location of primary and secondary resources in Venice.
  2. Aim to have 5-10 for each topic.
  3. Use a different colour for each type.
  4. Describe the distribution you have mapped.
 

secondary tourist resources

primary tourist resources

 THINGS TO DO IN VENICE (SOME PRIMARY RESOURCES)

THINGS TO DO IN VENICE (SOME PRIMARY RESOURCES)

HOTELS IN VENICE (SECONDARY RESOURCES)

RESTAURANTS IN VENICE (SECONDARY RESOURCES)

 
 

TOURISM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

CONFLICT BETWEEN LOCAL RESIDENTS AND VISITORS

  1. Access the resources below and list specific examples of management strategies in Venice under the following titles:
    • manage tourist demands
    • maximise capacity
    • minimise conflict between local residents and visitors
    • avoid environmental damage
  2. Continue research online to find other examples of how tourism is managed in Venice
 

The municipal authorities in Venice are considering curbing the number of tourists. One proposal would force visitors to buy an entry ticket and put a ceiling on the number of people allowed in at any one time.

Tourists walk on the bank heading towards Saint Mark’s Square in Venice

Venice is exceptional. Its biggest problem is made up of the 11 million or so day trippers who visit the city every year, putting an intolerable strain on Venice’s services yet contributing almost nothing to its finances. The problem has been exacerbated in recent years by a new generation of super-cruiseliners, which also represent an affront to the senses, dwarfing the architecture of the city as they make their way past St Mark’s Square.

Venice, though, is just as susceptible as any other tourist city to a new complication. Until a few years ago, the authorities had a hold on the number of people who could stay in their city: hotels, guest houses and other forms of accommodation had to be licensed. All the authorities had to do to limit the numbers of overnight visitors was stop giving out licences.

Then along came the internet, bringing with it couchsurfing and Airbnb.com. The licensing has remained. But it has become increasingly meaningless. The municipal authorities in Rome estimate that there are now 5,000 unregulated establishments offering a bed for the night. All of which argues in favour of a second plan being proposed for Venice. This would involve putting up turnstiles around St Mark’s Square, the “must-see” for most of the tourists who go to the city. Entry would be by means of a card. And cards would only be given out to residents, day trippers who paid and overnighters staying in registered establishments. (Source)

 

 
 

TOURISM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

BARCELONA

  • Crack down on Airbnb, doubling the number of inspectors
  • Venice: ban on new tourist accommodation
  • Venice: tourist counters at hot spots
  • Italy: ban on drinking in street at night
  • Italy: ban on going in fountains in Rome
  • Dubrovnik: cameras to monitor people and limit numbers if overcrowded 
 

MACHU PICHU, PERU

  • Record visitor numbers
  • Pressure from UNESCO
  • Peruvian government introduce restrictions at citadel
  • Entry only allowed with a tour guide
  • Limits to the number of tickets available
 

AMSTERDAM

  • Amsterdam banning new shops aimed at tourists
  • Services aimed directly at tourists e.g. ticket shops, cheese shops, bike rental to be limited
  • Aims to keep centre attractive and liveable for residents
  • Zoning plan to be introduced to better manage tourist services

 

Read the article and design a set of signs to manage tourism across Europe.

 
 

Other strategies:

  • Increasing police presence in Venice to reduce the number of people sleeping on bridges and swimming in canals
  • 5 Euro tax for wheeled suitcases
  • Turnstiles and barriers for access to St. Mark's Square (proposed)
  • Unauthorised coach tours banned
  • Increasing number of trash cans for litter
 
 

Exam Practice

Discuss the strategies designed to manage tourism in one named urban area. [10 marks]

 
 

Mark Scheme

There are a wide range of suitable answers which should be judged on a case-by-case basis. Answers are expected to examine the success or failure of attempts to manage urban tourism. Strategies to promote tourism should be considered as only a small part of the management spectrum.

Answers that simply describe management strategies rather than discussing elements of success or failure should be limited to band D. Those that describe tourism problems without discussing strategies should be limited to band C.

Answers that do not refer to an appropriate example (but discuss a rural location or strategies that relate to sport or leisure rather than tourism) should be limited to band D.

To access bands E and F, answers should refer to an appropriate example.

 
 
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Tourism Management in Rural Areas


Examine the concept of carrying capacities in a rural tourist area

Discuss strategies designed to maximize capacity, minimize conflicts between local residents & visitors and avoid environmental damage

Tourism Management in Rural Areas


Examine the concept of carrying capacities in a rural tourist area

Discuss strategies designed to maximize capacity, minimize conflicts between local residents & visitors and avoid environmental damage

 

CARRYING CAPACITY

The maximum number of visitors/participants that a site/event can satisfy at one time.

perceptual carrying capacity

the maximum number of visitors a place can satisfy before specific group of visitors considers the level of impact, such as noise, to be excessive).

environmental carrying capacity

the maximum number of visitors a place can satisfy before the local environment becomes damaged

 
 
 

the concept of carrying capacity

The concept of tourism carrying capacity arises from a perception that tourism cannot grow forever in a place without causing irreversible damage to the local system. Tourist attractions are assets which cannot be reproduced. 

A maximum number of users visiting tourist attractions lead to their saturation and, in turn, results in a poorer quality of tourist experience. The negative effects of saturation can also be felt in the neighbouring, unsaturated areas, the attraction of which is diminished by unattractive environments and the associated lower quality of tourist demand in the immediate vicinity. In other words, the greater the intensity of tourist use, the more limited the appeal of the tourist attraction becomes.

The high level of tourist activity in a certain region inevitably results in economic, environmental and social impacts. Some destinations are heavily dependent upon tourism in particular, because of the lack of other economic activities through which they would be able to sustain a standard of living. 

Source

 
 

CASE SUDY: TOURISM MANAGEMENT IN THE SWISS ALPS

>>> Write a paragraph summarising the information above

 

case study: rideralp, valais, switzerland

 
 

strategies to maximise capacity

  • Promotions for families allowing children under 9 to ski for free
 

strategies to avoid environmental damage

  • Protected areas off-limits to skiing
  • Waste and recycling stations in mountain villages
  • Waste removed from stations using special cable cars for bins
  • Signs show people where to walk/cycle etc so damage is limited to certain areas

strategies to minimise conflict between local residents and visitors

  • Laws prohibiting foreigners from buying properties in the Alps
  • Local involvement in and ownership of the tourism sector
  • Banning of cars in Riederalp village
  • Zoning for different leisure activities e.g paths for MTB and walking
 

What could we add to the two lists above?

 
 

EXAM PRACTICE

Discuss the strategies designed to manage tourism in one named rural area. [10 marks]

 

MARK SCHEME

There are a wide range of suitable answers which should be judged on a case-by-case basis. Answers are expected to examine the success or failure of attempts to manage urban tourism. Strategies to promote tourism should be considered as only a small part of the management spectrum.

Answers that simply describe management strategies rather than discussing elements of success or failure should be limited to band D. Those that describe tourism problems without discussing strategies should be limited to band C.

Answers that do not refer to an appropriate example (but discuss a rural location or strategies that relate to sport or leisure rather than tourism) should be limited to band D.

To access bands E and F, answers should refer to an appropriate example.


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Sustainable Tourism


Define sustainable tourism.

Examine the extent to which it may be successfully implemented in different environments

Sustainable Tourism


Define sustainable tourism.

Examine the extent to which it may be successfully implemented in different environments

Sustainable tourism allows for continuation of activity at the same level for future generations.

It minimises the impact of activity on the environment; supports the livelihoods and culture of local people; manages resources to prevent depletion; and reduces the ecological footprint of industry.
 
 

What are the problems and opportunities facing tourism?

 
 

Conceptual definition

Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations, including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability.


Thus, sustainable tourism should:


1) Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity.

2) Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance.

3) Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation.


Sustainable tourism development requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders, as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus building. Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts, introducing the necessary preventive and/or corrective measures whenever necessary.

Sustainable tourism should also maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists, raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them.

Source

 

TASK 

  1. Write the definition of sustainable tourism above in the middle of your page.
  2. Read the rest of the document and annotate your definition with extra information about sustainable tourism principles.
 
 
 
 

sustainable tourism means business

  1. Read pp 5-6
  2. List and briefly describe the 6 good reasons to adopt a sustainable approach to tourism
  3. Read one of the longer explanations of these reasons, summarise it and share this with the class (pp 9-16)
  4. Add to your notes
 
 

Carrying capacity

physical carrying capacity - the measure of absolute space, for example the number of spaces within a car park

ecological carrying capacity - the level of use that an environment can sustain before environmental damage occurs

perceptual carrying capacity - the level of crowding that a tourist will tolerate before deciding that a location is too full

 
 

sustainable tourism in uganda

Watch the video above from the perspective of one of the thinking hats below:

 

group discussion

To what extent can tourism ever be made sustainable? [10 marks]

  1. Share your thoughts and notes with the group in the role that you were given.
  2. Listen to others, add to your notes.
karst tombolo kho phi phi.jpg

Case study of ecotourism


Evaluate the strategies used to manage and sustain the tourist industry

Case study of ecotourism


Evaluate the strategies used to manage and sustain the tourist industry

Sustainable tourism allows for continuation of activity at the same level for future generations. It minimises the impact of activity on the environment; supports the livelihoods and culture of local people; manages resources to prevent depletion; and reduces the ecological footprint of industry.

Ecotourism is tourism directed towards exotic natural environments, intended to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife.

 
 
  1. Identify the problems created by tourism in Thailand
  2. List and describe the strategies used to manage and sustain the tourism industry.
 
 

Case Study: Ecotourism in UMPHANG, Thailand

 
 
 

strategies to manage and sustain the tourism industry

  1. Download and save this document
  2. Scan the text, identify and highlight two alternative definitions of ecotourism. Add these to your notes.
  3. Read the rest of the document and add to your notes
 
 

ecotourism STRATEGIES // DIAMOND 9

  1. In groups, organise these management strategies to form a diamond.
  2. Most important at the top, least important at the bottom.
  3. Discuss each choice in your group. The goal here is discussion and debate of choices.
  4. Mix the groups and share your thoughts.
  5. Write a summary of your discussion and your top three choices for management of the Ecotourism industry in Umphang.
 
 

independent work

  1. Conduct research into an ecotourism destination in Thailand. Create a document explaining how to get there, the location of the town in Thailand with map and the details of the place to stay.
  2. Focus on what makes this an ecotourist destination and the lengths to which the accommodation meets the criteria of ecotourism.
  3. Share this with the group and decide which one is the best option for an ecotourism holiday.
 
 

further reading - COMMUNITY TOURISM