Secondary tourist/recreational resources

Facilities that have been built specifically for tourism and leisure e.g. accommodation, catering, entertainment and shopping. 

Primary tourist/recreational resources

The pre-existing attractions for tourism or recreation (that is, those not built specifically for the purpose), including climate, scenery, wildlife, indigenous people, cultural and heritage sites.



venice & tourism

  1. Draw a sketch map showing the location of Venice in Italy
  2. Describe the location of Venice
  3. Research facts about tourism in Venice and create a factfile


  • Venice population: 55,000. Daily visitors: 50,000

  • Annual carrying capacity for tourism in Venice: 11 million people

  • Annual tourism numbers: 22 million (Of whom only 4 million stay one night or more)

  • Only 2 million visit cultural attractions such as galleries or museums

  • During ten days of the year, daily visits reach 100,000. It is not uncommon to have 200,000 visitors in one day.

  • Visitors exceed the carrying capacity for two thirds of the year.



distribution of primary and secondary tourist resources

  1. Using Tripadvisor (map view), research and plot the location of primary and secondary resources in Venice.
  2. Aim to have 5-10 for each topic.
  3. Use a different colour for each type.
  4. Describe the distribution you have mapped.

secondary tourist resources

primary tourist resources








  1. Access the resources below and list specific examples of management strategies in Venice under the following titles:
    • manage tourist demands
    • maximise capacity
    • minimise conflict between local residents and visitors
    • avoid environmental damage
  2. Continue research online to find other examples of how tourism is managed in Venice

The municipal authorities in Venice are considering curbing the number of tourists. One proposal would force visitors to buy an entry ticket and put a ceiling on the number of people allowed in at any one time.

Tourists walk on the bank heading towards Saint Mark’s Square in Venice

Venice is exceptional. Its biggest problem is made up of the 11 million or so day trippers who visit the city every year, putting an intolerable strain on Venice’s services yet contributing almost nothing to its finances. The problem has been exacerbated in recent years by a new generation of super-cruiseliners, which also represent an affront to the senses, dwarfing the architecture of the city as they make their way past St Mark’s Square.

Venice, though, is just as susceptible as any other tourist city to a new complication. Until a few years ago, the authorities had a hold on the number of people who could stay in their city: hotels, guest houses and other forms of accommodation had to be licensed. All the authorities had to do to limit the numbers of overnight visitors was stop giving out licences.

Then along came the internet, bringing with it couchsurfing and The licensing has remained. But it has become increasingly meaningless. The municipal authorities in Rome estimate that there are now 5,000 unregulated establishments offering a bed for the night. All of which argues in favour of a second plan being proposed for Venice. This would involve putting up turnstiles around St Mark’s Square, the “must-see” for most of the tourists who go to the city. Entry would be by means of a card. And cards would only be given out to residents, day trippers who paid and overnighters staying in registered establishments. (Source)





  • Crack down on Airbnb, doubling the number of inspectors
  • Venice: ban on new tourist accommodation
  • Venice: tourist counters at hot spots
  • Italy: ban on drinking in street at night
  • Italy: ban on going in fountains in Rome
  • Dubrovnik: cameras to monitor people and limit numbers if overcrowded 


  • Record visitor numbers
  • Pressure from UNESCO
  • Peruvian government introduce restrictions at citadel
  • Entry only allowed with a tour guide
  • Limits to the number of tickets available


  • Amsterdam banning new shops aimed at tourists
  • Services aimed directly at tourists e.g. ticket shops, cheese shops, bike rental to be limited
  • Aims to keep centre attractive and liveable for residents
  • Zoning plan to be introduced to better manage tourist services


Read the article and design a set of signs to manage tourism across Europe.


Other strategies:

  • Increasing police presence in Venice to reduce the number of people sleeping on bridges and swimming in canals
  • 5 Euro tax for wheeled suitcases
  • Turnstiles and barriers for access to St. Mark's Square (proposed)
  • Unauthorised coach tours banned
  • Increasing number of trash cans for litter

Exam Practice

Discuss the strategies designed to manage tourism in one named urban area. [10 marks]


Mark Scheme

There are a wide range of suitable answers which should be judged on a case-by-case basis. Answers are expected to examine the success or failure of attempts to manage urban tourism. Strategies to promote tourism should be considered as only a small part of the management spectrum.

Answers that simply describe management strategies rather than discussing elements of success or failure should be limited to band D. Those that describe tourism problems without discussing strategies should be limited to band C.

Answers that do not refer to an appropriate example (but discuss a rural location or strategies that relate to sport or leisure rather than tourism) should be limited to band D.

To access bands E and F, answers should refer to an appropriate example.