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Niche National Strategies


Examine the changes in location and development of different tourist activities.

Explain the growth of more remote tourist destinations.

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Niche National Strategies


Examine the changes in location and development of different tourist activities.

Explain the growth of more remote tourist destinations.

changes in location of different tourist activities

case study: TICINO, GRAUBüNDEN and Basel, switzerland

Which regions lost tourists and why? What strategies were employed to bring back tourists?

 

development of different tourist activities

CASE STUDY: ADVENTURE TOURISM IN SWITZERLAND

LIST THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOURIST ACTIVITIES IN THE VIDEO

 

adventure travel

Adventure travel is a type of tourism involving exploration or travel with perceived (and possibly actual) risk, and potentially requiring specialised skills and physical exertion. Adventure tourism has grown in recent decades, as tourists seek different kinds of vacations, but measurement of market size and growth is hampered by the lack of a clear operational definition. According to the U.S. based Adventure Travel Trade Association, adventure travel may be any tourist activity, including two of the following three components: a physical activity, a cultural exchange or interaction and engagement with nature.

Adventure tourists may be motivated to achieve mental states characterised as rush or flow, resulting from stepping outside of their comfort zone. This may be from experiencing culture shock or through the performance of acts, that require significant effort and involve some degree of risk (real or perceived) and/or physical danger. This may include activities such as mountaineering, trekking, bungee jumping, mountain biking,canoeing, rafting, zip-lining, paragliding, and rock climbing. Some obscure forms of adventure travel include disaster and ghetto tourism. Other rising forms of adventure travel include social and jungle tourism.

Access to inexpensive consumer technology, with respect to Global Positioning Systems, flashpacking, social networking and photography, have increased the worldwide interest in adventure travel. The interest in independent adventure travel has also increased as more specialist travel websites emerge offering previously niche locations and sports.

Source

 

the power of adventure tourism

adventure tourism is what tourism should be

 
 

CASE StUDY: adventure tourism in switzerland

Switzerland is the #1 ranked destination for adventure tourism in the developed world.

Read pp 21-22 of the pdf below and explain why.

 
 

explain the growth of more remote tourist destinations

 

tourism in polar regions

In Antarctica, there has been a tremendous growth in tourism activities over the last decades. The number of ship-borne tourists increased by 344% in 13 years and land-based tourists by 917 % in 9 years. By the early 1990’s, the number of tourists in Antarctica eclipsed the number of scientists conducting research there.

Since then, the disparity between numbers of tourists and scientists has steadily increased. Today improving transport technologies, growing popularity, increasing wealth and leisure time, a moderating climate, and intensive tourism promotion are all contributing to the growth of tourism in the Polar Regions.

 

Source

task

  1. Read pp 2-5
  2. Read pp 12-15
  3. Describe the growth of polar tourism using data.
  4. Explain the growth in popularity of these destinations.
  5. Examine the environmental impact of polar tourism.
 
 

exam practice

Examine the changes in the international tourism industry that have led to the development of different types of tourist activity and locations. (10 marks)
 

MARK SCHEME

Responses are expected to acknowledge the overall global increase in tourist numbers and the associated increase in revenues. This increase in the overall industry has increased the saturation of existing locations, the decline of domestic tourist locations in the UK and Switzerland, and led to new types of tourism evolving (cultural weekend tourism in Basel, Adventure tourism in Switzerland) and more remote locations being developed (high mountain areas, north and south poles). Reference to models of tourism may be relevant here.

Ecotourism, adventure tourism, high value luxury tourism and back-packing are different types of tourism that may occur in remote locations. In addition, an increase in transport infrastructure and reduced flight costs has made new locations more financially viable. Global warming may be opening up some remote locations to tourism, such as Greenland and Svalbard. A recognition amongst governments of the development potential provided by tourism has increased investment thus increasing access. Increasing standards of living in emerging economies is leading to an increase in the volume of global tourists in recognised markets. This is compounded by mass media and marketing.

While examples are not a specific requirement of the question, those answers that provide supporting examples are likely to access the higher markbands. At band D, at least two changes are described and linked to different types of tourist activity. To access bands E and F a variety of changes are examined (e.g. may examine the most important change, or categorise the changes) and linked to different types of activity and new destinations. 

 

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Tourism as a development strategy


Assess the importance of tourism as a development strategy for low-income countries.

Tourism as a development strategy


Assess the importance of tourism as a development strategy for low-income countries.

UNWTO Tourism Stories

List the ways that tourism can contribute to economic development.

 

Tourism can contribute to development and the reduction of poverty in a number of ways. Economic benefits are generally the most important element, but there can be social, environmental and cultural benefits and costs.

Tourism contributes to poverty reduction by providing employment and diversified livelihood opportunities. This in turn provides additional income or contributes to a reduction in vulnerability of the poor by increasing the range of economic opportunities available to individuals and households.

Tourism also contributes to poverty alleviation through direct taxation and the generation of taxable economic growth; taxes can then be used to alleviate poverty through education, health and infrastructure development. It should not be forgotten that some tourism facilities also improve the recreational and leisure opportunities available for the poor themselves at the local level. (Source)

 
 

KEY FACTS

  • Tourism is a massive industry accounting for 9% of global GDP which has huge economic potential for developing countries.
  • In 2016, more than 1 billion people travelled internationally. 40% of those journeys ended up in a developing country.
  • Tourism flows have a huge potential to lift low income countries (LICs) out of poverty.
  • Tourism represents $300 billion per year flowing from rich to poor countries (3 x bigger than the global aid budget).
  • Many small countries have benefitted enormously from tourism, however not all money trickles down to local people.
 
 

tourism and the sustainable development goals

 
 

tourism and economic development

The category of Least Developed Country was first used by the United Nations in 1971 to encourage the international community to recognise these countries as structurally disadvantaged.

Since 1971 only Botswana has graduated from LDC status, and tourism played a very significant role in that process with the annual number of international tourism arrivals increasing by more than half a million visitors between 1985 and 1998.

Cape Verde, Maldives, Samoa and Vanuatu have all been considered for graduation since 1994 and in all four of them tourism has been the single most important factor explaining the socio-economic progress which would form the basis of their graduation. 

In the Maldives, annual visitor arrivals tripled between 1985 and 1998, in the same period the proportion of tourism exports to GNP increased from 75% to 89%, making the Maldives the LDC most dependent on international tourism, followed by Samoa and Vanuatu, both with over 20%.

International arrivals to other LDCs grew fast between 1995 and 1998. Angola and Chad experienced more than 75% growth. Cape Verde, The Gambia, Laos, Mali and Zambia all enjoyed growth above 20%. However, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome, Kiribati, Ethiopia, Eritrea, the Central African Republic and Burundi, all saw reductions in international visitor arrivals. (Source)

 

Mongolia

Gambia

 
 

Benefits of Tourism

  • Develops secondary industries to support tourism e.g agriculture, manufacturing, transport and services (The multiplier effect)

  • Tourism is labour intensive and employs a high number of people in different industries

  • Tourism depends on natural capital (wildlife, scenery and beaches) and culture, which are assets owned by the poor

  • Provides an industry in countries that have no exports

  • More jobs are filled by women

Limitations of Tourism

  • High levels of foreign ownership lead to leakage of profits to foreign countries

  • Locals may be displaced from agricultural land and lose access to resources like beaches

  • Tourism is vulnerable to changes in the global economy, losing tourists in times of economic recession

  • International visitor arrivals are vulnerable to conflict, crime, political instability and natural disasters in tourism destinations

  • Tourism requires highly sophisticated marketing that might not always be funded by the government

 

 

EXTENSION TASKS

 
 

exam practice

Examine the view that tourism offers a guaranteed route towards economic development for low-income countries. (10 marks)

 

MARK SCHEME

Answer invites debate around “guaranteed”, in addition to recognizing that there are positives and negatives in any case, which in itself makes the statement controversial.

Economic benefits can be discussed for individuals working in the tourist industry or for national income. Expect details of multiplier effects, foreign earnings. This must be balanced against financial losses (leakage of profits from foreign-owned ventures). Good answers should recognize that tourism is not a one-size-fits-all development strategy: it may not be the best strategy in some cases (and parallel strategies might exist).

For band D, there should be an understanding of how tourism may lead to economic development, and an awareness of the limitations of tourism to economic development.

At band E the general truth of the statement should be explored, using exemplification.

At band F there should be a balanced evaluation.

 
 

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International Sporting Event


Analyse the geographic factors that influenced the choice of venues

Examine the factors affecting the sphere of influence for participants and supporters

Evaluate the short and long-term geographic costs and benefits of hosting such an event at both the local and national level

International Sporting Event


Analyse the geographic factors that influenced the choice of venues

Examine the factors affecting the sphere of influence for participants and supporters

Evaluate the short and long-term geographic costs and benefits of hosting such an event at both the local and national level

 

geographic factors that influenced the choice of venues

 
 
 

TASK 1

  1. Watch the videos above and read pp 1&2 of the Geo Active PDF
  2. Explain why Stratford was chosen for the London 2012 Olympics referring to:
    • Socio-economic factors
    • Transport links
    • Physical factors
 
 

Factors affecting the sphere of influence for participants and supporters

The sphere of influence in this context refers to the area from which the London 2012 Olympics draws its participants and supporters. It can be influenced by a number of factors:

  • Popularity of the Olympic games in source countries
  • Wealth or development of source countries
  • Increased mobility of population
  • Impact of competitors increasing interest (e.g. Usain Bolt)
 
 

costs and benefits at the local & national level

 
 

TASK

  1. Read the document
  2. Highlight costs and benefits using two different colours
  3. Add information to your notes
 

exam practice

“Local people do not benefit from hosting an international sporting event.” Discuss this statement. [10 marks]

 

MARKSCHEME

Reasons to agree with the statement include:

  • Organisation of events is usually done at national or international level therefore some leakage can occur. Multinational investment and sponsorship prevents the needs of local people being met.
  • Likely increase in local problems – traffic, house prices etc.
  • Effects are short-term and interest in local issues decreases after event.

Reasons to disagree with the statement include:

  • Legacy of investment in infrastructure and amenities for use by the community
  • Employment provided
  • Inward investment
  • Requirements for sustainable development are more likely to be met.

While examples are not a specific requirement of the question, those answers that provide supporting examples are likely to access the higher markbands.

To access bands E and F, responses should present a balanced discussion that considers both reasons to agree and disagree with the statement and may realise that some benefits are not always clear cut and have a temporal aspect – short-term/long-term.

Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.

Examiners report

The benefits of international sporting events to anyone other than locals (such as major corporations, national economy, etc.) were often totally ignored. Answers were generally stronger on the benefits for the local people but often did not consider longer-term effects beyond the event itself.

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Urban Regeneration


Discuss the role of sport and recreation in regeneration strategies of urban areas

Urban Regeneration


Discuss the role of sport and recreation in regeneration strategies of urban areas

Urban regeneration: the attempt to reverse urban decline by both improving the physical structure, and, more importantly and elusively, the economy of those areas. In all regeneration programmes, public money is used as an attempt to pump prime private investment into an area.

Why are sporting events often successful ways to make sure urban regeneration takes place?

 
 

urban regeneration in east london

 

RESOURCES

 
 

SUMMARY

Reasons why London 2012 was not successful for urban regeneration:

Reasons why London 2012 was successful for urban regeneration:

  • Many jobs were temporary
  • Unemployment went up in some boroughs during games
  • New housing too expensive for poorer people of Newham
  • Too early to see if there has been any long-term economic/social benefit
  • £9 billion of investment - most into public transport
  • New train station: Stratford International, direct trains to Paris
  • 2 new underground lines
  • One new line on Docklands Light Railway (DLR)
  • Olympic Village > East Village housing 
  • Housing for 8000 people. 40% affordable housing
  • New school - Chobham Academy
  • Media Centre > Data centre and tech startup hub
 
 
 

extension task

Events and Urban Regeneration: London 2012

 
 

exam practice

“Sport and recreation are an effective means of regeneration for urban areas.” Discuss this statement. [10 marks]

 
 

Candidates may agree or disagree with this statement.

Barcelona and Beijing are often given as good examples of how sport can help regenerate a city.

The London 2012 Olympics is considered to be a major success in the regeneration of London’s East End whereas Atlanta and Athens may be examples of where sport has had less success.

Other methods could be discussed, such as property-led regeneration, new retail developments, urban development corporations, provided they are legitimate spin-off effects from the initial investment in sport rather than entirely alternate strategies.

The effectiveness of some strategies may only be evident over the long-term, and it may not be possible to assess “effectiveness” in the case of recent case studies such as the 2012 London Olympics.

Different groups may have differing perspectives on whether the changes are “effective” for them or others, eg those displaced by gentrification or those who do not like the noisy visitors that sport can attract.

At band D, responses are likely to be descriptive and might only consider one side of the argument.

At band E, expect either a wider range of more detailed impacts of sports/recreation regeneration for urban areas or some more explicit discussion of effectiveness.

At band F, expect both.